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The Iliad and such

Foundations of Western Culture

Neolithic humans used stone for settled agriculture
Paleolithic "Old Stone Age"-humans used stone for everything and every day things
Fertile Crescent another name for Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia "land between the rivers"- Tigris and Euphrates
Sumer (Sumerian) land at the end of Mesopotamia where the Sumerians lived-very intelligent
Uruk a major city of Sumer- where Gilgamish is from
Ziggurat The temple complex
Cuneiform "wedged-shaped writing"
Pictograph use of pictures to write concrete things
Anthropomorphism the idea that gods are like humans and act like humans
Atrahasis (creation account) basically the gods need us to work for them because we have no purpose anyway
Iron Age use of iron and other medals for everything
Nineveh a major capital of the Assyrians
Library of Ashurbanipal library built by King Ashurbonge to preserve ancient writings
Mycenaean Ruled by warriors
Minoan Ruled by women
Heinrich Schliemann "discovered" Troy and the Mycaenean culture
Arthur Evans "discovered" Knossos and the Minoan culture
Discovery of Troy Heinrich found a bunch of bronze from around 1200, which then he lead to believe it was this city
Mycenae city of King Agamemon that was "discovered" by Heinrich Schlemann, not really sure if it's real or just invented based off of the city of Troy in the Iliad
Mask of Agamemnon In the city of Mycenae, they would used mask to cover/honor the dead and apparently Heinrich found this mask but it looked like none of the others and strangely resembled Heinrich.
Shaft Graves Where the bodies of the people of Mycenae were buried and had mask over them
peer polity model the idea of a shared culture but not a shared ruler
Knossos city of King Minos that was "discovered" by Arthur Evans, not really sure if it's real or just invented based off of the city of greek mythology
Matriarchy (in connection with the Minoans) Females were in charge
“Bull Jumping” a activity in the Minoan culture where men would jump over bulls for entertainment
Hesiod a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer. He created the idea of Theogony
Theogony origins of the gods
Simonides a Greek lyric poet, born at Ioulis on Ceos.
The Sumerian Pantheon (The Primary Deities discussed in class) -Amunaki-heavenly beings -Gigi-heavenly beings on earth -Anu-Origins -Ki-Earth -Enlil-air god -Enki-earth bound water god -Sin-moon/fertility god -Shamasha-sun god -Ishtar-sexual desire god
The Rape of Europa (Zeus and Europa) Zeus transforms to bull and takes Europa and causes her to have king Minos
King Minos and the Minotaur King Minos builds a palace for the Minotaur which is the offspring of his wife and this bull that was causing problems for the city which leads him to sacrifice 7 boys to the Minotaur every year
The Origins of the Greek Gods (According to Hesiod’s Theogony) Choas created Gaia and Quranos who created Chronos and Rhea who created Zeus and Hera who created the Olympians
The Judgment of Paris Paris stole Helen from Minilaious because three goddesses promised different things and that is why Aphrodite is a Trojan
The Myth of Pandora Pandora opens the box she isnt supposed to letting all the evils out of the world and shuts it, leaving hope in the box
Gilgamesh King of Uruk- had a law he could have sex with any woman he pleases, no one likes him because he's kind of a jerk and searches for immortality for Enkidu
Enkidu raised by animals and the goddess took him to have sex with a woman to get him to become human
Diomedes Fighting for Fathers glory-Greek-could tell god from man-killed Priam's kids
Ajax sent to get Achilles back-Greek
Zeus king of the gods-god of jusitce-made a deal thetis that greeks will struggle and he will help trojans
Utnapishtim The one who builds a boat like Noah and he is the one who Gilgamesh comes to to seek eternal life for Enkidu
Hector Finishes of Patroclus-Trojan-beloved by many-breeder of horses
Aeneas trojan commander-aphrodite's son
Priam father of Hector and Paris-King of Trojans
Andromache Hector's wife
Aphrodite goddess who loves trojans and saves paris
Hecuba Paris and Hectors mom
Achilles Got his girl stolen-Greek-goes to mother to get help-absent during most of the war-greatest warrior
Paris Hector's Brother-Trojan- Coward-said to be "god-like"
Athena side of the Greeks-gives everyone everything, such as Diomedes temper
Odysseus a great speaker sent to Achilles to get him back in the war-Greek
Ares caused entire reason for war-judgement of Paris-offered Helen to Paris
Apollo side of trojans
Agamemnon King of the Greeks
Nestor Orator-Greek
Hera wife of Zeus-fighting for the Greeks
Phoenix a second father to Achilles and is sent to get him back in the war-Greek-dont wait until its too late
Artemis goddess of archury-side of trojans
Menelaus brother of Agamemon-Greek
Helen of Troy The reason for the war-Paris has stolen her-daughter of Zeus-most beautiful woman in the world-Greek/Tojan
Created by: janalyn_faith