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Idustrial Revolution

what type of nation even after the civil war? Agriculture
By 1920 US became what? leading industrial power
What changed the nation after the civil war? advances of natural resources, growing city population, and want of new products
What was in an abundant supply? cheap labor
What did growing population provide for products? sizable markets
What did the federal gov't provide for business? direct and indirect support
What did the support consist of provided by the gov't? assisted by refraining from regulating the business activities and by opposing the activities of labor unions
What natural resources were in abundance? coal, iron, and oil
What was the important source of energy for industry and transportation? oil,coal
What was discovered in 1840 to light lamps and produced from oil, and increased demand for oil? kerosene
Where did oil refining industries start spring up? Cleveland and Pittsburg
What is seen as a by-product and then thrown away; becoming important until after the automobile gasoline
What is dense but it is also soft, breaks and rusts, because it contains carbon? iron
Who and whom removed carbon from iron to produce a lighter, flexible and nonrusting steel? Henry Bessemer and Bessemer Process
How much of steel did the Bessemer process produce for American manufacturers? 90%
name the bridge and skyscraper to be first made out of steel? Brooklyn Bridge and home insurance building in Chicago
Also give examples of the first things to be made out of steel? Railroads, plow, reaper, can foods
List the 4 changes of American life due to new products. 1. women began to work in offices 2. long hours, unhealthy conditions for factory workers 3. expanding urban populations( vast potential for new products) 4. world, smaller because new communication developments
What did Thomas Edison do? He perfected the incandescent light bulb and planned power plants to generate electricity
What did electricity run by the 1890s? name 3 machines, appliances, city streetcars and trolleys
The 6 causes of the printing revolution? 1.90% literacy rate by 1890 2.cheap paper and high speed presses 3.electrically powered web-perfecting press(both sides) 4.presses now cut,fold,counted pgs 5.magazines and newspapers now affordable 6.books,magazines,newspapers increase- meet demand
where and when was the 1st successful flight Kitty Hawk, NC Dec. 17, 1903
Height and time of the first flight 120ft and 12 secs
Could moving objects be photographed by cameras before 1880s? no
In 1888 what does Eastman introduce when sent for processing, is sent back to you with reloaded film kodac camera
Amateur photographer took picture of what special event? Wright Brothers 1st flight at Kitty Hawk
May 10, 1869 where did the first transcontinental meet? Promontory, Utah
BY 1890, how many railroad miles zigzagged across the US? 200,000+
TRUE or FALSE. Running and building railroads were easy and safe. False
two main groups to build the railroads Chinese and irish
explain what happen at granite mountain 1866 RR hired chinese immigrants to tunnel through the mountain. Worked 5 months in camps surrounded 40ft of snow. Many froze to death and 100s buried alive in avalanches
How many local time zones did the US have before the new standard time zone? 70
When did the US Congress adopt the new time zone standard? 1918
Specialization of products helped who prosper? cities and communities
Were Pullman's workers basic needs provided and who's control were they under? Yes and Company's control
In 864 who formed a construction company called the Credit Mobilier? Union Pacific stockbrokers
How much did the stockholders give credit mobilier contract to lay RR track? 2-3xs the actual cost
How were the Credit Mobilier not able to get caught by gov't? They paid off members of congress
Were their scheme uncovered and anything happen to people involved? Yes and nothing happened to the people
Why did the Grangers(farmers) want the gov't to control the RR industry? because they are disturbed by RR corruption
What are the farmers mad about? misuse of gov't land grants and price fixing
what did the RR regulatory laws become known as? Granger laws
What supreme court case upheld Granger laws: state could regulate RRS and important principle set: federal gov't right to regulate private industry serve public interest? Munn v. Illinois
What did the Interstate Commerce Act established? right of fed. gov't to supervise RR activities and created the ICC to regulate RR rate but could not set max rates
What led RRs declaring bankruptcy? corporate abuses, mismanagement and competition
Reasons why the Panic of 1893 was the worst up till then? RR financial problems 600 banks and 15,000 businesses failed, 4 million people lost jobs, 1/4 the nation's RRs taken over by financial companies
bought raw material companies vertical integration
companies producing similar products merge horizontal integration
How did social Darwinism appealed to ordinary people It taught the importance of hard work and personal responsibility. It supported the American dream of "rags to riches"
Why businessmen not totally supportive of social Darwinism? Felt industrialist tried to eliminate all competition that threatened growth of their own business empire
How did industrialist pursue by merging? what was created horizontal integration, made monopolies
Industrialist eliminate competition by doing what? putting power in the hands of a business tycoons
what are holding companies? corporations that buy out stock of another company
Explain trust. different companies work together thru a board of trustees as a large corporation, then companies split the profits earned -not LEGAL
Business boom bypasses the south -mainly in north, slower in south -Northern businesses owned 90% of the stock in southern enterprises -south agriculture -south's slow economic growth
Reasons for the South's slow economic growth -not recovered from civil war -refused to invest in money in business aafter the war -economic obstacles w/ starting business: transportation cost, high tariffs, unskilled labor -could not compete w/ north
Why were worker's exploited? When there was an abundant supply of cheap labor
How did industrial workers live hard lives, give examples? -worked longed hours -dangerous conditions -low pay -no benefits -no choice but deal w/ harsh condition b/c needed the money -all family members worked tedious jobs requiring little skill
ex of child labor a big problem -worked dawn to dusk -no time or energy for school -suffer hunger and exhaustion
labor unions emerge 6 day work week, 12 hr days, NO vacation, sick leave, unemployment or disability
National Labor Union -3000 local unions in 13 states -focused on linking up existing local unions persuade gov't to adopt 8hr work days for gov't offices -formed Labor Reform Party -refused African Americans
Colored National Labor Union formed because refused by the NLU
Knights of labor -open to all workers, regardless gender and race -8hr work day in all industries -equal pay for equal work, men and women -saw strikes as last resort, advocated arbitration
American Federation of Labor -focused on collective bargaining or group negotiations b/w employer and employee -used strikes, major tactic
American Railway Unison -opened to both un and skilled laborers -won a strike for higher wages -had more members than the 4 skilled RR unions combined
Union belief: American economic system, private ownership and free competition led to the rich-richer, poor-poorer
What solution did the Labor union leaders feel was the best socialism
Economic and political system based on what kind of business and property collective control
Socialism carried to its extreme form is communism
Communism -gov't control of everything political and economic in a country -no basic civil rights
Industrial Workers of the World IWW -organized by radical unionist and socialists -headed by "Big Bill" Heywood -welcomed women and African Americans, mostly unskilled laborers
What did the United mine workers of America support? supported the Great Strike, led children on a march to TED ROOSEVELT house to protest child labor
International Ladies; Garment worker's Union (ILGWU)support? supported the "Uprising of 20,000," 1909 seamstress strike that won labor agreements & improved working conditions
Triangle shirtwaist Factory Factory full of women caught on fire by machines, company locked all doors but one exist that was blocked by fire. 146 women died. Owners put on trial but acquitted by jury. People looked more into work conditions
How business leaders took steps to prevent workers from organizing labor unions? - refused to recognize union representatives during work negotiations - forbade meetings - fired union members - made them sign "yellow dog contract"
How did business leaders also got help from the federal gov't? - acclaim a strike to interstate commerce and gov't would send troops or send workers back to work
what happens when the public withdraws their support from unions? Union membership starts to decline
How does workers in unions view unions? As a powerful tool to achieve their goals
Created by: 100001403127096