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# 1 Social Studies

Unit 1 Review- The First Americans

Define the word prehistoric. It is something that is before written record.
Define the word culture. It is how a group of people live. Their way of life depends on their environment.
What makes cultures different? Their dress, religion, food, language, art, holidays/celebrations.
Define the word migration. It is the movement of people from one area to another.
Why did people migrate? Food, water, climate
Define the word interaction. It is how humans adapt to and change their environment in order to survive.
Define the word nomadic. Small groups of people who were constantly moving. They were hunters and gatherers.
What is agriculture? Farming
Where did the first Americans come from? They originally started in Asia.
Why did the first Americans move? They followed their food source (Woolly Mammoth) and for climate.
How did the first Americans get to the Americas? The Land Bridge Theory- The sea levels were lower and they crossed from Asia to the Americas. The Coastal Migration Theory-They sailed down along the Pacific Coast of the Americas
Why did the first Americans have to be nomadic to survive? They needed to follow the mammoths. The mammoths were used for food, clothes and shelter. Once they used up the animal, they followed the herd and started again.
What did the nomadic group use as shelter and why? Their shelter was a teepee because they were quick to put up and down. If they couldn't move quickly, they couldn't adapt and they didn't survive.
What did farming give the first Americans? Farming gave them a surplus of food, which allowed for permanent settlements.
What were the first Americans able to do because of the surplus from farming? They began to specialize and have different jobs due to the surplus.
Define the term archaeology. The study of prehistoric people.
Define the word artifact. Items made or used by people which represent their culture.
Define Primary Source. The original from a certain time period. An eyewitness account. A first-hand account of someone who was actually there.
Give some examples of a Primary Source. artifacts (pottery, bows and arrows, photographs), newspapers, diary/journal, governmental documents.
Define Secondary Source A copy or replica of the original. A second-hand account.
Give some examples of a Secondary Source. teachers, textbooks, dictionary, atlas, museum toys
Define the word social. Anything dealing with a civilization's culture.
Give some examples of social. art, education, religion, language, architecture, customs and celebrations
Define the word political. Anything dealing with the government.
Give some examples of political. laws, leaders, military, war, branches of government, voting
Define the word economic. Anything dealing with money or the way a culture survives.
Give some examples of economic. taxes, pricing, trading, import/export, industry (companies, factories)
How do archaeologists use artifacts? They use them to determine how prehistoric people lived.
Explain the role of an archaeologist. They study prehistoric culture.
Explain the purpose of the Iroquois Confederation. It provided a common defense and they helped each other in a time of need.
Why did Native American tribes develop differently? They had different environments.
What was the purpose of the buffalo to the Great Plains Native Americans? They provided everything for their culture (food, clothing, shelter, etc)
How were the Native American tribes different? They developed different cultures due to different environments.
How does geography affect where people live? The cultures must adapt differently.
Define carbon dating. It is how Archaeologists can date items. It is used to determine the age of an artifact.
What was a Wooly Mammoth? A prehistoric animal that was followed as a food source.
Describe the term culture. It is how a group of people live. It is the lifestyle of the people.
Name the shelter of the Iroquois. The Long House (wooden houses that held up to 500 people)
Define potlatch. A gift giving ceremony of the Northwest.
What did the Land Bridge do? It connected Asia to North America.
What is a travois? Sleds that were used on the Plains.
Explain the Iroquois Confederacy. The government of the 5 nations. A powerful alliance between the Iroquois groups
Name the 5 nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. 1)Mohawk 2)Onondaga 3)Seneca 4)Oneida 5)Cayuga
Define the term igloos. They are shelter- structures made of ice and snow.
What is irrigation? The watering of dry farm land by means of ditches or pipes.
Name the 3 sisters. Who used them? 1)corn 2)beans 3)squash They were from the Iroquois
What is migration? The movement of a large number of people into a new homeland.
Define the term civilization. An advanced culture. A highly developed culture, usually with organized religions and laws.
What are glaciers? Huge sheets of moving ice.
What is a teepee and what Native American group used them? It is the shelter of the Plains.
Explain the religion of the Native Americans of the Arctic. They had close ties to the natural world and they believed every animal had a spirit.
Explain how the Native Americans of the Arctic interacted with the environment. How did their culture survive? -They used driftwood to make tools -ICE... they made igloos -They used seal for fur and clothing -They used kayaks to hunt seal, whales, walrus -They hunted Caribou for the meat -They went fishing -Trading
Explain the culture (social) of the Native Americans of the Northwest. -They believed that salmon bones grew a new body when it was thrown back into the water -Families gained status by how much they owned -To improve social standings, the families held a potlatch
What is Potlatch? It is a dinner where the family showed off its wealth by giving presents to their guests.
Explain how the Native Americans of the Northwest interacted with the environment. How did their culture survive? -They had a surplus of food Salmon) and shellfish (used as money, called Dentalia) -They used forests to make permanent homes and canoes -They hunted deer, moose and bear -They had a larger population due to the surplus
Explain the culture (social) of the Native Americans of the Southwest (The Pueblos). -religion reflected the importance of farming -tried to please the spirits of nature -Women owned most of the family property. -Men lived with the wife's family -had an underground chamber for religious ceremonies (Kiva)
Explain how the Native Americans of the Southwest (Pueblos) interacted with their environment. How did their culture survive? -They built adobe houses (sand and mud) permanent structures. -They grew corn, beans and squash (crops) -They had a surplus
Explain how the Native Americans of the Great Plains interacted with their environment (Economic). How did their culture survive? -They hunted buffalo (clothing, food, teepees) -Horses made them better hunters
Explain the culture (social) of the Iroquois. -Women owned the household items -Women did the farming -Men hunted the deer, moose, etc. -After marriage, the men moved in with the woman's family
Explain the government (political) of the Iroquois. -Women chose the clan leaders -Each of the 5 nations had their own ruling council -The league was formed to stop fighting between the 5 nations -A council of 50 Sachems (leaders) met once a year to make decisions
What were the benefits of the League of the Iroquois? -A United defense (they stopped fighting) -They helped each other in times of need -Working together made them powerful -They could share food supplies
Where did the Iroquois live? -Upstate New York -They lived near a river or lake in the woods (this enabled them to live in longhouses (made of wood), to have crops (permanent settlements), to hunt deer and birds (woods) and to fish (near the rivers and lakes).
Explain the environment of the Native Americans of the Plains. -flat grasslands
Where were the Native Americans of the Plains located? -They were located in Central United States
Name the groups of the Plains. -The groups were the Lakota and Blackfeet
What was the food and shelter of the Native Americans of the Plains? -Food (buffalo); Shelter (teepee)
What did the Native Americans of the Plains need to do in order to survive? -They were a highly nomadic group, who had to follow the buffalo in order to survive.
Created by: carlsond
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