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unit test

QuestionAnswer
what was the court case called over the person who burnt the flag? Texas v. Gregory Lee Johnson
what was Gregory convicted of? "discretion of a venerated object"
what is the constitution? it creates political institutions, assigns, or divides powers in Gov. and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.
what are natural rights? they are rights given to us by God
what is consent of the governed? the idea that Gov. derives its authority by sanction of the people
what is limited Gov.? the idea that certain restrictions should be placed on Gov. to protect the natural rights of citizens
what did the revolutionary war not have that every other war has? a dictator
what was shays rebellion? a series of armed attacks on courthouses to prevent judges from foreclosing on farms.
what questions did the delegates agree on? 1) human nature, 2) the cause of political conflict, 3) the objects of Gov. and 4) the nature of a republican Gov.
what did Thomas Hobbes say life would be like without a strong Gov.? " solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short"
what was the purpose of Gov.? to protect property
what were checks and balances made to do? to keep factions down
what is the secret to good Gov.? a "balanced Gov."
what are factions? groups such as parties or interest groups
which house is the most important one, the Senate or the House of representatives? the senate
what is the New Jersey Plan? the proposal at the constitutional convention that called for equal representation of each state in congress regardless of the states population
what is the Virginia Plan? the proposal at the constitutional convention that called for representation of each state in congress in proportion to that states share of the U.S. population.
what is the Connecticut Compromise? the compromise reached at the constitutional convention that established two houses of congress, the Senate and the House of representatives.
what was the second equality issue? slavery
what does "unicameral" mean? one house- the House of representatives
what does "bicameral" mean? two houses- the Senate
what was the three-fifths compromise? representation and taxation were to be based on the "number of free persons" plus 3/5 of the number of "all other persons".
what is congresses most important job? money
what does writ of habeas corpus mean? show me the body
what is writ of habeas corpus? a court order requiring jailers to explain to the judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
who was the key figure in writing the constitution? James Madison
how many representatives are in the Senate from each state? two from each state, not according to population
what is a republic? a form of Gov. in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws>
what are checks and balances? features of the constitution that limit Gov. power by requiring each branch to obtain the consent of the others for its actions, limiting and balancing power among the branches.
what is the declaration of independence a document Americans created against the British to claim their freedom.
when was the declaration of independence adopted? May and June 1776.
when Parliament passed taxes without the colonist opinion what did they do to protest? they boycotted the taxed goods, and as a symbolic act of disobedience even threw 342 crates of tea into the Boston harbor.
what was the document "common sense"? it encouraged colonist to declare independence from Britain.
what is the legislator? one chamber with one vote per state.
who could vote during this time? rich, white, farmers
what was at the top of the political agenda? economic issues.
what five states were represented at the meeting? New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia
Who said "give me liberty or give me death"? Patrick Henry
what is a republican government? government in which ultimate power rest with the voters
what is direct government? people vote for everything
what is a republic? people pick representatives to vote for them
in 1787 slavery was legal in every state but which one? Massachusetts
what is another name for the Connecticut Compromise? the great compromise
what other problem did the delegates dodge around? equality in voting
what other ability did congress get? regulate interstate and foreign commerce.
why were they constructing a limited government? so it couldn't threaten personal freedoms
why didn't the constitution talk about the protection of personal rights? because they couldn't all agree on one thing
democracy? government by the people, both directly and indirectly, with free and frequent elections.
direct democracy government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly.
representative democracy aka republic government in which people elect those who govern and pass laws, also called a republic
popular consent ides that government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs
majority rule governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority
majority the candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in the election
ideology a consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government
bicameralism principal of two-house legislature
federalist supporters of ratification of the constitution and of a strong central government
antifederalist opponents of ratification of the constitution and a strong central government generally
the federalist papers essays promoting ratification of the constitution, published by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1778
natural law Gods or natures law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
separation of powers constitutional divisions of powers among the legislative, executive,and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making laws, the executive branch applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the laws
divided government governance divided between the parties, especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of congress
judicial review the power of the court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.U. constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution
impeachment formal accusation by the lower house of legislature against a public official, the first step in removal from office
executive order directive issued by a president or governor that has the force of law
devolution the effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states
unitary system constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central government
confederation constitutional agreement in which sovereign nations or states, by compact, create a central government but carefully limit its power and do not give it direct authority over individuals
expressed powers powers the constitution specifically grants to one of the branches of the national government
implied powers powers inferred from the expressed powers that allow congress to carry out its function
federal mandate requirement the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds
concurrent powers powers that the constitution gives to both the national and state government, such as the power to levy taxes
full faith and credit clause clause in the constitution requiring each state to recognize the civil judgement rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid.
who wrote the constitution? Thomas Jefferson
what is a categorical grant? they have increased the power of the federal government because states must comply with the attendant regulations
what is a block grant? they have fewer strings attached thus allowing states greater discretion in making decisions about how to implement a program
what is a mandate? a rule telling states what they must do to comply with federal guidelines
what is unitary? a centralized system of government in which all power is vested in a central government
what is confederate? a decentralized system of government in which a weak central government has limited power over the states
what is federal? a system of government in which power is divided by a written constitution between a central government and regional governments
what are two other court cases you have to know for the test? McCulloh v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden
Dual federalism? a system of government in which the national and state governments remain supreme within their own sheres
Cooperative federalism? a system of government in which the national and state governments work together to complete projects
Fiscal federalism? refers to the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal government
Super pack? interest group that raises money for a cause
how much of a vote must be obtained in order to pass an act? 2/3 vote
what is a constitution? the nations basic law.
how did colonist protest for the taxation without representation? they protested, boycotted the taxed goods, and even dumped 342 chest of tea into the Boston harbor.
who wrote the Common Sense? Thomas Paine
what did Thomas Paine's Common Sense do? it encouraged the colonist to declare independence from Britain.