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Histology 11th grade

Epithelial Location (Function) Covers body surface, lines hollow organs, body cavities and ducts, also forms glands
Connective Functions Protects and supports body and its organs, binds organs together, stores E as fat reserves, provides immunity
Muscle Function Movement and generation of force
Nervous Function Initiates and transmits action potentials that help coordinate body activity
Tight Junctions form fluid-tright seals b/t cells, common in epithelials that line stomach, urinary bladder and intestines
Anchoring Junctions fasten cells one to another or to EC material, common in tissues subject to friction and stretching-skin, heart, uterus, GI tract
Communicating Junctions allow rapid spread of AP, common in nervous system, heart, and GI tract
Epithelial Tissues Characteristic have a free surface (apical)
Epithelial Tissues Characteristic have a basement memebrane (basal, CT)
Epithelial Tissues Characteristic avascular, exchange material by diffusion
Epithelial Tissues Characteristic cells readily divide
Epithelial Tissues Characteristic cells tightly packed, arranged in sheets
Epithelial Tissues Characteristic cells often have desmosomes
Epithelial Tissue Functions protection, secretion, absorption, excretion
Epithelial Tissues Characteristic classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers
Epithelial Layers simple, stratified, pseudostratified
Squamous shape flat
cuboidal cube-like
columnar rectangular
transitional variable
Simple squamous Description single layer of flat cell, substances easily pass through, easily damaged
Simple squamous Location line air sacs, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, body cavities
Simple squamous Function Filtration, diffusion, osmosis
Simple squamous Tissue type Epithelial
Simple cuboidal Description Single layer of cube-shaped cells, centrally located nuclei
Simple cuboidal Location line kidney tubules, cover ovaries, line ducts of salivary, pancreas, and liver glands
Simple cuboidal Function absorption and sectretion
Simple columnar description single layer of elongated cells, nuclei at same level, basement membrane, ciliated/non-cilitated, sometimes posses microvilli, often have goblet cells
Simple columnar Location line uterus, stomach, intestines
Simple columnar Function absorption, secretion, protection
Pseudostratified columnar Description single layer of elongated cells, appear striated, nuclei at different levels, often have cilia, often have goblet cells
Pseudostratified columnar Location line respiratory passageways
Pseudostratified columnar Function secretion, protection, movement of mucus and substances
Stratified squamous Description many cell layers, top cells flat, can accumulate keratin (protein), outer layer of skin
Stratified squamous Loction line oral cavity, throat, vagina, anal canal
Stratified squamous Function Protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion
Stratified cuboidal Description 2-3 layers of lining of lumen, cube shaped cells
Stratified cuboidal Location line ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and the pancreas
Stratified columnar Description top layer of elongated cells, cube shaped cells in deeper layers
Stratified columnar Location line vas deferens, male urethra, and part of pharynx
Transitional Description many cell layers, cube shaped and elongated, expandable lining/barrier
Transitional Location line urinary bladder, utreters, and part of urethra
Glandular Epithelium composed of cells that are specialised to produce and secrete substances
Simple cuboidal Tissue type Epithelial
Simple columnar Tissues type Epithelial
Pseudostratified columnar Tissue type Epithelial
Stratified squamous Tissue type Epithelial
Stratified cuboidal Tissue type Epithelial
Stratified columnar Tissue type Epithelial
Transitional Tissue type Epithlial
Glandular Epithelium Location within columnar or cuboidal epithelium
Endocrine gland ductless
Endocrine gland Function secrete into tissue fluids
Exocrine gland have ducts that open to the skin or lining of digestive tracts
Unicellular one cell, goblet
Multicellular many cells, sweat glands, salivary glands
Simple Exocrine gland Duct with no branching
Compound Exocrine gland Duct with branching
Tubular gland have epithelial lined tubes
Alveolar gland sac like dilations at terminal ends
Merocrine gland product fluid
Merocrine gland release exocytosis
Merocrine gland location salivary glands, pancreas, sweat glands
Apocrine gland product cellular product
Apocrine gland secretes portions of cells
Apocrine gland location mammary, ceruminous
Holocrine gland product secretory
Holocrine gland releases whole cells (disintegrate cell)
Holocrine gland Location sebacious glands
Serous cells water, high concentration of enzymes
Mucous cells thicker fluid, mucin protein
Connective Tissue Description most abundant tissues type, cells far apart with extracellular matrix, highly vascular exept for cartilage and tendon, cells usually divide
Connective Tissue Function bind structures, support and protect organs, frame work of body, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells, protect against infecitons, help repair tissue damage
Fibroblast Description fixed cell, most common cell, connective
Fibroblast Shape star
Fibroblast Function produce fibers into ECM
Mast cell Description fixed cell, large, connective
Mast cell Location Near blood vessels
Mast cell Function releases histamine and heparin
Macrophage cell Description wandering cell, phagocytic
Macrophage cell Function defense
Collagenous Fiber Description thick, grouped in long bundles, composed of collagen
Collagenous Fiber Location abundant in dense CT, tendons, ligaments
Collagenous Fiber Function tensile strength, hold structures together
Reticular Fiber Description thin collagenous fibers, highly branched
Reticular Fiber Function form supportive networks
Reticular Fiber Location spleen, liver, lymph nodes
Elastic Fiber Description bundles of microfibrils (yellow fibers) embedded in elastin, fibers branch, elastice
Elastic Fiber Location vocal cords, air passages
Connective tissue proper Description loose conective tissue (areolar), adipose, reticular, dense connective, and elastic connective tissues
Loose connective tissue Description thin delecate membranes, mainly fibroblasts, fluid to gel like matrix, highly vascularized
Loose connective tissue fibers collagenous and elastic
Loose connective tissue Location beneath most epithelium, fills spaces between muscles
Adipose tissue description adipocytes
Adipose tissue Function cushions joints and organs, insulates, store fats in cytoplast
Adipose tissue Location beneath skin, behind eyes, around kidneys and heart
Blood Description fluid matrix (plasma), RBC, WBC, platelets
Blood Function transports, defends, clotting
Blood Location thorughout blood vessels, heart
Reticular CT Description composed of thin callagenous fibers
Reticular CT Function supports organs
Reticular CT Location framework of walls of liver, spleen, lymphatic organs
Dense CT Description packed collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, few fibroblasts, poor blood supply
Dense CT Function bind body parts together
Dense CT Location tendons, ligaments, dermis
Elastic CT Description sub epidermal, some collagenous fibers, fibroblasts
Elastic CT Location abundant in elastic fibers, attachments between vertebrae, wolls of large ateries, airways, heart
Bone Description solid matrix, osteocytes in lacunae
Bone Location skeleton, spongy and compact bone
Bone Function supports, protects, forms blood cells, attachment for muscles
Cartilage description rigid matrix,chondrocytes in lacunae, poor blood supply
Cartilage types hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
Hyaline cartilage description most abundant
Hyaline cartilage Location ends of bones, nose, respiratory passages, embryonic skeleton
Elastic Cartilage Description flexible
Elastic Cartilage Locaiton external ear, larynx
Fibro cartilage Description tough, shock absorber
Fibro cartilage Location intervertebral discs, pads of knee, pelvic girdle
Muscle Tissue Description cells called muscle fibers, contractile, three types, skeletal, smooth, cadiac
Skeletal Muscle attached to bones, striated
Skeletal muscle Motion voluntary
Smooth muscle walls of organs, skin, walls of blood vessels, not striated
Smooth muscle Motion involuntary
Cardiac muscle heart wall, striated, intercalated discs
Carciac muscle Motion involuntary
Nervous Tissue basic cells neurons, neurological cells support cells
Nervous Tissue Location brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
Nervous Tissue Function sensory reception, conduction of nerve impulses
Serous Membrane Location line body cavities that lack opening to outside, inner lining and covering of thorax and abdomen
Serous Membrane Function reduce friction, secrete serous fluid
Mucous Membrane Location line tube and organs that open to outside world, lining of mouth, nose, throat, ect.
Mucous Membrane Function secrete mucus
Cutaneous Membrane Location Covers body, skin
Chondrodysplasia collagen chains too wide, stunted growth, deformed joints
Hereditary osteoarthritis change in amino acid in collagen, painful joints
Dsytrophic eapidermolysis bullosa breakdown of collagen that attaches skin layers, stretchy skin, lax joints
Created by: 1746867517



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