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Speech Science

01 Frequency

Hierarchy of Speech Acts 1. Neural Signals 2.Muscular Contractions 3. Structural Movement(lips, jaw, tongue, velum, vocal folds) 4. Areodynamic Events (result of structural movement- friction sounds, building up & releasing of pressure) 5.Acoustic Consequences 6.Speech
In order to have sound, you must have 1. Something put into vibration 2. Something to conduct (i.e., carry or transmit) the sound vibrations
In order to have vibration Something with elastic properties must be put into motion
Elasticity -the tendency for an object to return to its normal resting state.
Inertia -the tendency for a body at rest to remain at rest, or a body in motion to remain in motion.
Conductors -conduct sound well
Insulators -don’t conduct sound well
How Sound is Conducted Compressions & Rarefactions
Degree of max compression 90°
Degree of max rarefaction 270°
2 tones are presented, with identical frequency and intensity. However, they are 180 degrees out of phase. What happens? cancellation
2 tones are presented, with identical frequency and intensity, and the exact phase relationship. What would happen? A single tone with increased amplitude
Amplitude -The maximum displacement during a cycle of vibration -The point of maximum compression
Sound is conducted through a medium by The traveling of the disturbance. Air particles do NOT move a great distance, just enough to disturb the next air particle and so forth.
Rarefraction point of stretch
Trough valley that's the point of maximum rarefaction
Amplitude peaks are point of maximum compression
relationship pf amplitude/compression and intensity. The greater the compression/amplitudue, the greater the intensity.
We perceive intensity as loudness
Damping The gradual decrease in the amplitude of vibration over time
Psychological perception of frequency Pitch
Psychological perception of Intensity Loudness
3 Physical Properties of Sound -Frequency (# of cycles, pitch) -- measured in Hertz (Hz) -Intensity (height of wave, amplitude) -- measured in decibels (dB) -Duration -- measured in milliseconds (ms)
Frequency is determined by what? -The number of complete cycles occurring during one second. -The more cycles that occur in 1 sec the higher the frequency and vice versa.
In order to have a perceptible pitch, a frequency that you can hear, there has to be... -Repetition -each cycle must occur and reoccur at the same rate
periodic wave A sound wave that repeats itself at regular intervals
aperiodic wave -A sound wave that is non-repetitive, has a different rate for each cycle -No specific frequency can be assigned to -it has no perceptible pitch -it is random noise
If a tone has 1000 cycles in one second, how long does it take to complete one cycle? or what is it's period -each cycle takes 1/1000 of a second
How long does it take to complete one cycle of a 250 Hz tone? or what is it's period -1/250 of a second
period -The length of time it takes for a tone to complete one cycle of vibration
tones with higher frequencies have what kind of periods. shorter
How to Convert to milliseconds pull decimal to right 3 places.
What is the period of a 1000 Hz tone? =1/1000 sec =0.001 sec =1 ms
What is the period of a 2000 Hz tone =1/2000 =0.0005 sec =0.5 ms
What is the period of a 250 Hz tone? =1/250 sec =0.004 sec =4ms
What is the period of a 500 Hz tone? =1/500 sec =0.002 sec =2ms
What is the frequency of a tone that has a period of 50 ms? decimal moves left 3 times = 0.050 sec = 1/0.05 = 20 Hz
What is the frequency of a tone that has a period of 5 ms? 5 ms= .005 sec 1/.005= 200hz
What is the frequency of a tone that has a period of 20 ms? =0.020 sec =1/.02 =50 Hz
How to calculate frequency with a graph -must know the time per divion -count how many seconds it takes to complete 1 cycle -Ex:2ms to complete one cycle 2ms= .002 sec 1/.002 =500 Hz (frequency)
Created by: aramos139