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Anatomy 1

AG 502 Anatomical Terminology 1

8 things to look for in an oral exam irregularities in face, lips, jaw, hard palate, teeth/gums; range of movement in tongue, velopharyngeal; overall motor speech
CNS brain and spinal cord, housed in bones: skull, stacked vertibrae
5 basic tissue types epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous, vascular
hippocampus memory
adduction moving towarepds midline
cell smallest unit of living structure capable of independent existence; 80% water
epithelial tissue sheets of tissue 1. covering the external surface of the body 2. lines cavities and 3. organs
epithelial proper skin and continuous with the skin ex: surface of viscera, glands, ducts
vascular tissue fluid tissues; 10% of body weight
appendicular skeleton 1. pectoral girdle 2. pelvic girdle 3. middle ear ossicles
falx cerebelli lower vertical portion of dura separating cerebellar hemispheres
tentorium cerebelli horizontal portion of dura separating cerebrum from cerebellum
synergists stabilizing muscles
5 properties of life irritability, growth, spontaneous movement, metabolism, reproduction
amygdala emotions and drives
limbic system anatomy amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, cingulate gyrus, mammilary bodies, uncus, olfactory bulbs
potency stem cell differentiation potential
mitosis cell reproduction
axial skeleton vertibrae, skull, hyoid bone, ribcage
synovial fluid lubricates the joint cavity
diarthrodial joint freely movable; ball and socket, saddle, pivot, hinge, condyloid, gliding
atresia place where there should be a hole but there isn't one
falx cerebri upper vertical portion of dura separating cerebral hemispheres
mesencephalon midbrain; red nucleus, substantia nigra, corpora quadrigemina
osteoblast bone cells
spinal midulary junction where the spinal cord meets the medulla oblongata
3 major fissures of the brain superior medial longitudial, central (Rolando), lateral (Sylvian)
frontal lobe planning, initiate voluntary motor behaviour, motor planning and coordination
abduction moving away from midline
extension straightening movement
metencephalon hindbrain; pons, cerebellum, 4th ventricle
how joints are classified 1. amount of movement permitted 2. main component of tissue at union of bones and/or cartilege
limbic system physiology motivation, sex drive, emotional behaviour, (smell, taste, hunger, anger, fear, sexual arousal, thirst)
antagonist opposing muscle
periosteum tough, fibrous membrane covering all bones
ependyma neuroglia in the CNS that makes cerebrospinal fluid in the choroid plexus
sinus a cavity within a bone
sublux dislocate a joint
epithelial endothelial inner lining of the walls of blood vessels; has no continuity with epidermis; smooth surface
endomysium binds muscle fibres and separates them from adjacent fibres
hindbrain metencephalon, myelencephalon
telecephalon forebrain; cerebrum, basal ganglia, corpus callosum
neurology study of the effects of "disease" in the nervous system on human behaviour
midbrain mesencephalon
forebrain telencephalon, diencephalon
afferent carrying toward the CNS
epithelial mesothelial lines primary body cavities
flexion bending movement
the only two muscles (of 329) that are not paired diaphragm and procerus
efferent conduction from cental region to the periphery
why is anatomy and physiology a basic requirement for certification for SLPs? 1. vocabulary in medical reports and research articles 2. implications of conditions on speech language function 3. "pattern recognition" relationships among structures 4. "speech mechanism exam" conducting 5. thinking and speaking vocabulary for jobs wit
connective tissue connect or bind structures together, support the body, and aid in bodily maintenance
parenchyma cells that form the essential structure of an organ ex: brain - neural tissue
agonist actively contracting muscle
middle cerebral arteries distribution temporal, frontal and parietal outer surface
spinal cord composition 8 cervical; 12 thoracic; 5 lumbar; 5 saccral; 1-2 coccygeal
perimyseum binds groups of muscle fibres and separates them from other groups
epimysium ensheaths an entire muscle
prone on front, facing downwards
peristalsis ex: esophagus; waves of circular contraction and relaxation
fistula opening/passage where there should not be one ex: cleft
diencephalon forebrain; thalamus, hypothalamus, thalamic nuclei
4 brain lobes frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
ANS controls internal environment; involuntary, unconscious, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle; 2 subsections - sympathetic (ON) and parasympathetic (OFF)
myelencephalon hindbrain; medulla oblongata
anterior cerebral arteries distribution inner surface of frontal and parietal
posterior cerebral arteries distribution occipital lobe, inner and bottom of temporal lobe, deep structures of forebrain and midbrain
amphiarthrodial joint yielding; ossifies with age ex: pubic symphysis (for child birth)
circle of willis purpose redundancy; if one area is blocked, blood can still get to that area
relative refractory period the time after firing when a stronger stimulus is needed to fire than when "resting"
perichondrium a tough membrane over all cartilege
occipital lobe primary visual reception and processing
foramen opening or hole in bone or cartilege
stem cells can differentiate into a diverse range of specialized cell types
supine on back facing upwards
absolute refractory period no matter how strong the stimuli - the time after firing where a neuron can not fire again
blood consists of ... corpuscles - red and whiteplatelets - for clottingplasma - watery, intercellular
cranial nerve 2 optic nerve
cranial nerve 1 olfactory nerve
parietal lobe perception of somatic sensations; pain, temperature, touch-pressure
10 principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity 1. use it or lose it2. use it and improve it3. specificity ('new' skills)4. repetition5. intensity6. time7. salience8. age9. transference - promote other neurons10. interference
pre-frontal areas anticipation, goal direction, planning, interpretation, use of feedback, monitoring int and ext events
speech mechanism exam actually looking into someone's mouth to see the structures and evaluation adequacy for speech production
temporal lobe primary auditory reception and language processing
chondroblast cartilege cells; hyaline (joints), fibro (discs), elastic (ear)
how do cells differ? structure and function
ventricular system 2 lateral ventricles, third ventricle, cerebral aquaduct, fourth ventricle; supports and cushions the brain and spinal cord
4 types of neuroglia macro, micro, ependyma, Schwann
condyle a rounded or knuckle-like process
Created by: Aureole