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Audiology SLP314

Physical acoustics Movement or propagation of a disturbance (i.e., vibration) through an elastic medium (e.g., air molecules) without permanent displacement of the molecules.
Psychoacoustics Auditory experience or sensation.
Sound wave A disturbance created in a medium, such as air, by a source of vibration.
Waveform A graphical description of the variation in a sound wave’s amplitude as a function of time.
Spectrum A graphical description of the variation in a sound wave’s amplitude and phase as a function of frequency
Decibel The unit of measure used to describe the level or magnitude of a sound wave.
Three prerequisites for a sound wave. 1. Source of energy. 2. Vibrating object 3. Medium (Receiver is optional)
Brownian motion A description of the movement of air molecules: -moving constantly in a random fashion. -colliding with whatever is in their path. -elastic.
Condensation (compression) Molecules that are pushed together- area of high pressure.
Rarefaction Molecules that are spread apart- area of low pressure
Wavelength Distance required for one complete cycle of sound.
Waveform Plot of amplitude as a function of time.
Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) The most fundamental form of vibration.
Three aspects of vibration. 1. Amplitude 2. Frequency 3. Phase
Amplitude Intensity or strength perceived as loudness. Pressure fluctuations measured in decibels. Range of molecule displacement.
Frequency The number of complete cycles of vibration that occur in one second - cycles per second - Hertz (Hz)
Human hearing capacity (in Hz) 20 - 20,000 Hz
Speech sound range (in Hz) 20 - 8,000 Hz
Resonant frequency Frequency at which an object vibrates naturally.
Qualities that affect resonant frequency Mass & stiffness/elasticity.
Phase opposition Two waves 180 deg out of phase so as to cancel each other out.
Period (T) Duration of one full cycle of vibration (measured in sec or ms). T=1/freq
Relationship (formula) of period to frequency Inverse: T = 1/freq. or freq = 1/T
Three graphic representations of acoustic signals 1. Waveform 2. Amplitude spectrum 3. Phase spectrum
Sinusoidal sound Periodic (repeating) energy at one frequency only.
Complex sound Combination of different tones at different frequencies, amplitude, and phase (periodic or aperiodic)
Constructive interference Two sound waves combining together to yield a sound wave that is greater in amplitude than either wave alone.
Negative interference (destructive) Interaction of two sound waves resulting in amplitude that is less than that of either wave alone.
Harmonic tones Integer multiples of the fundamental frequency.
Formants Frequency regions of enhancement due to vocal tract shape.
Fundamental frequency of vowels determines ____________. Pitch
Amplitude relation between vowel overtones or harmonics determines ____________. Quality
Created by: ashea01