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Neuroanatomy final


anterior in front of something (lips to uvula)
posterior the back of something
superior above something (chest to the belly button)
inferior below something (knee to the thigh)
medial middle, toward the midline. (eyes are medial to the ears)
lateral toward the side (the ears are lateral to the eyes, the little toe is lateral to the big toe)
ipsilateral the same side of the body
contralateral affects the different side of the body
bilateral 2 sides
unilateral 1 side
horizontal plane divides the brain into superior and inferior halves, top and bottom
sagittal plane a parallel cut of the brain, divided it into right and left hemispheres
coronal cut divides anterior and posterior parts of the brain, front and back
midsaggital divides into 2 equal halves with a parallel cut.
2 divisions of the nervous system cranial nervous system (brain and spinal cord), peripheral nervous system (cranial nerves, autonomic nervous system, somatic nervous sytem)
peripheral nervous system Cranial nervesAutonomic nervous systemSomatic nervous system
central nervous system the spinal cord and the brain; the brain contains the cerebral lobes, cerebellum, basal ganglia, diecephalon, brainstem, and lymbic system
somatic nervous system this is all of the things that you are aware of around you. -sensory=smelling, touch, hearing-motor=voluntary action; running, walking, and shaking hands
autonomic nervous system these are things that happen in the body autonomically.-digestion-breathing-heart beat
parasympathetic nervous system this helps to keep the body in homeostasis-pupil dilation-decreased heart rate-perstalisis of digestion, normal function-bladder functions as normal
sympathetic nervous system this helps us with fight or flight response (something that is stressing the system)-pupil constriction-increased heart rate-digestion slow down-production of urine slows
gray matter the outsideof the brain, makes up the nucleus "cell body"
white matter the collection of axons in a cell
4 cerebral lobes frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal
right hemi function understanding, abstract concepts, music, melodies
left hemi function language, concrete subjects like math and memory
corpus collosum connects the right and left hemi so they can work together
what seperates the frontal lobe from all the other lobes -the posterior boundry is the central sulcus.-the inferior boundry is the lateral fissure
what are the five basic divisions of the frontal lobe -motor cortex-premotor cortex-supplementary motor cortex-prefrontal cortex-Broca's area
Motor cortex function controls all voluntary movement on the contralateral side
premotor cortex function this helps to initate and plan movements
supplementary motor cotex function helps with complex postures, memory and visual things
prefrontal cortex function helps with reasoning, decision making, and tells you when to do things
Broca's area function this helps with expressive language (either written or spoken)
what happens if there is a lesion in the frontal lobe? -can't move on opposite side-there is impaired judgement in appropriate behavior, use bad language, and changes in personality-apathy (cant relate to others)- Broca's aphasia
What are the parietal lobe boundries? -inferior boundry is the lateral fissue-anterior boundry is the central sulcus-posterior boudnry is the parietal-occipital sulcus and extends to the pre-occipital notch
4 areas of the pariteal lobe -somatosensory cortex-sensory association cortex-angular and supramarginal gyri-Wernicke's Aphasia
somatosensory cortex function (primary sensory cortex) helps us since things anywhere around or on our body. helps with perceptual synthesis and spacial orientation
snesory association cortex function helps interpret the sensory info you are recieving
angular and supramarginal gyri function helps with reading, writing, and calculation
Wernicke's area function the place where you are understanding and break down speech
what happens if there is a lesion in the parietal lobe? -there is memory loss and loss of special orientation-alexia-agraphia-anomia-agnosia-dysnomia-acalcula-hemi neglect=they are totally unaware of things on one side of the body
What are the divisions of the temporal lobe -posterior boundry is the occipital lobe-anterior boundry is the lateral fissure
3 divisions of the temporal lobe and some of its function -primary auditory cotex-language dominant association cortex-non-language dominant association cortex-function: important for learning and memory, some visual stimuli is processed here, but not most important place for vision
primary auditory cortex function place where you recieve almost all auditory info
language dominant association cortex function (Wernicke's area) important for the analysis of speech and langauge and verbal memory
non-langague dominant association cortex function hels with musis and environmental sounds
What happens if there is a lesion in the temporal lobe? -loss of attention to auditory info-memory loss-Wernicke's or receptive apahsia-seizures-some vision problems
What are the divisions of the occipital lobe? -the pre-occipital nothc divides it from the occipital from the parietal lobe-the anterior division is the parietal occipital sulcus
What is the function of the occipital lobe? primary and secondary cotex where the main process is for visual stimuli
what can occur if there is damage to the occipital lobe? -impaired ability to process visual info-impaired recognition of color-visual hallucination-visual illusions (disotorted perception)
Where is the insula? under the frontal and temporal lobe
what are the 3 main areas of the insula? -primary gustatory cortex-anterior nsular cortex-central region
primary gustatory cortex function responsible for taste, hels with association btwn taste and smell, taste and memory
anterior insular cortex function the center for pain, links painful events with emotions or behavior
central region funciton important for linguistic and phonological processing and motor programming of speech
Where are addictions seen? in the insula
What occurs if there is a lesion in the insula? -taste and pain perceptin will change-dyslexia, apraxia, and aphasia-seizures=may taste things before they have a seizure
3 parts of the limbic system and some function -cingulate cortex-parahippocampal gyrus and uncus-hippocampus-funciton: links raw emotion to long term memory
cingulate cortex function helps with decisoin making in response to sensory data. emotional tone, bladder contol, and emotional vocalization
parahippocampal gyrus and uncus function use past memory to decide response to certain stimuli, helps with short term memory. A relay station btwn hippocampus and upper cerebral cortex
hippocampus function long term memory storage
What happens if there is a lesion to the limbic system? -hyperorality, bizzare eating and drinking habits, sexual behavior, and personality changes-loose of newly acquired memory, also called antereograde amnesia-spatial problem solving-can't control emotions
What is the function of the basal ganglia? -inhibits unwanted movement, hibits wanted movement, helps maintain muscle tone and motor steadiness, stores learned repetative motion, and regulates amplitude, velocity, and initiation of movement
What can happen if there is a lesion in the basal ganglia? -hypokenisias, hyperkinesia, tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slow to initiate any motor movement)
What are the 4 areas of the diencephalon -thalamus,hypothalamus,epithalamus, and subthalamus-it is a collectio of 26 paired nuclei
dorsal the back (the gluteus maximus is dorsal to the ambillicus)
rostral above others "head"
caudal tail (below others) knee to the thigh
What is the point of the interthalamic adhesion to connect the 2 sides of the thalamus
What are the main functions of the thalamus? -main relay station for sensory info, send info to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, arrousal attention and regulates conscoiusness
What happens if there is damage to the thalamus? -localization of sensory info is not correct, cortically blind and cant process pictures, not able to determine the intensity of pain
What is the funciton of the subthalamus? this is functinally part of the basal ganglia but is anatomically in the diencephalon
What happens if there is a lesion to the subthalamus? hyperkinetic movment (uncontrolled movement)
What is the function of the hypothalamus? maintaning homeostasis, basic body function (sleep/wake cycle)
What happens if there is a lesion the the hypothalamus? -it will affect a persons ability to eat or drink affectively. -Prader-Willi syndrome=subset of paternal genes missing or unexpressed (crave food all the time)
cerebellum little brain, damage to this will affect the ipsilateral side, holds 50% of the brian neurons and only makes about 10% of the brain anatomy
3 areas of the cerebellum vermis and flocculonadular lobes, anterior lobe, posterior lobe
vermis & flocculonadular lobe function control trunk muscles, and muscle close to your body: key for posture and balance
anterior lobe function control distal muscles (legs and arms), helps with walking and arm movement
posterior lobe function motor planning, timing, coordination of all muscle groups, helps with fine motor movement
What happens if there is damage to the cerebellum? -ataxia (inacccuracy of speech), nystagmus, tremor, and cognitive affective syndrome (problems with personality reasoning skills, working memory, auditory halluncinations, cognitive functions related to hearing, understanding speech, and auditory memory
3 components of the brainstem midbrain, pons, medulla
What are the 4 main junctions of the brainstem? midbrain-diencephalon junction, pontomesencephalic juction (pons and medulla), pontomedullary junction (pons and medulla), cervicomedullary junction (medulla and spinal cord
reticular formation it regulates consciousness
What the functions of the brianstem? conduit function (relay station), cranial nerve function (cranial nerve nuclei), integrative function (heart rate/respiratoin and viseral function)
What if the function of the midbrain? -descending motor tracts, sends visual info and auditory info, cerebral aqueduct (holds cerebral spinal fluid), peri acqueductal gray (reaction to pain stimuli or threats)
What happens if there is damage to the midbrain? vision and auditory information will be affected
What is the function of the pons? -it has relay and cranial nerve nuclei which lie in the internal pons, relay system btwn spinal cord and brain, processing motor infor from cerebral cortex and forward that infor to cerebellum, and processing sensation from face
What happens if there is a lesion the the pons coma or death
What is the fucntion of the medulla? corrdintes cardiovascular control (heart rate), repsiration, regualtes viseral activity, head and neck movement, swallowing
What happens if there is a lesion to the brainstem? coma, death, locked-in syndrom, cranial nerve damage, sensroy loss, hyperactive reflexes, vertigo, nausea, dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, hemiplagia or quadriplegia
What are the function of the meninges? to pad the brain and the spinal cord, and to keep the brian and the SC from moving around
3 menigeal layer Dura matter (hardest layer), Arachnoid matter (looks like the spider web), Pia matter (thinnest layer and closest to the brain)
Dura matter attached to the skul and is the toughest layer
2 layers of the dura matter Peristeal (closest to the skull), menigeal (interior layer of the dura and adhears to the peristeal almost everywhere)
What is the falx cerebri dips into the longitudinal fissure and divided into the L and R hemi
What is the tentorium cerebelli a sheet that seperates the cerebellum from the cortex
What is the function of the dural sinus? opening for blood vessels and nerves, cerberal veins run thougth the sinuses; the large nerves fucntion as a circulatory system
What causes headaches? inflammation of the meninges which cover the brian b/c the brain itself has no pain receptors, constriction of meninges
What is the subdural space? the space btwn the dura and arachnoid matter
Why is ther a subdural space and what can happen in it? it contain blood vessels and ifther is a subdural hematoma they have breakage of blood vesseld and there will be bleeding in the space. Pressure will increase and compress the neural tissue. TBI or borken skulls
arachnoid matter looks like a spider web, whisp layers that adhear to the dura matter lossly
Pia matter follows the contours of the gyri and sulci, the inner layer of the meninges, it adhears to the cerebellum and is very thin almost transparent, blood vessels run through it before they enter the brain
blood brain barrier the brian is isolated from blood by the blood brain barrier, it functions as an excahnge of nutrients btwn the clood and brain, keeps bad things out and lets good things in. 98% of drugs are not aloud in
Structures of the arachnoid matter arachnoid trabeculae, subarachnoid space, arachnoid granulations, cisterns, and cerebellar medullary cistern (cistern magna)
arachnoid trabecula serves as a bridge btwn the arachoind and pia matter
subarachnoid space is filled with CSF to cushion the brain
arachoid granulations protrudes into the dura, this is a way for the CSF to het back to the circulatory or vascular system
cistern large spaces in the subarachnoid space
cerebellar meullary cistern (cistern magna) the largest cistern btwn the cerebellum and the medulla, can be a place where a shunt is put
muscle tone unconscoius phenomenon of continuous state of muscle contraction at rest, not aware of it
mechanisms that mediate tone upper motor neurons, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and lover motor neurons
muscle abnormalities that result from damag to mechanisms that mediate tone strength, bulk, contraction, tone and stiffness
ventral front "belly"
Created by: sushelto
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