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Unit 1 Test Review

TermDefinition
Eugen Debs American railroad union leader. Tried to settle dispute which turned violent.
Placer mining Used simple tools like picks, shovels, and pans.
Sluice mining Diverted the current of a river into trenches, screens separated the minerals.
Hydraulic mining Sprayed high pressure water against hill or mountain washing away dirt, gravel, and rock exposing the minerals beneath the surface.
Quartz mining Deep mine shafts are dug & miners go underground to extract the minerals.
Laissez-faire policy Did not interfere w/ business.Supply & demand regulated markets.Profit motive attracted many entrepreneurs (people willing to risk their $$, or capital, by investing it in industry).Policy that gov. shouldn't interfere.
Karl Marx Made a Communist theory Marx…that workers would have a worldwide revolution & overthrow gov’ts. Many Americans feared that unions were a first step!!!
Northrop Automatic loom Clothing industry -standard sizes, power sewing machine. Created by James Henry Northrop in 1895.
Industrial union Is a labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union—regardless of skill or trade. (Craft union,Common laborers
Gross National Product The value of goods and services produced by a country per year.By 1914 was eight times greater than when the Civil War ended.
Andrew Carnegie “Captain of the Steel Industry" Used the Bessemer Process - a cheap way of making steel and Vertical integration.
Chief Joseph Refused to sell land to government 1877 - Gov. ordered the Nez Perce people to move to a reservation. They fled and tried to evade the army Captured about 40 miles south of Canada. Chief Joseph made speech that he would fight no more forever.
Longhorns Well-adapted to Plains cattle.After Civil War - beef was rare & expensive;RRs could carry rounded-up longhorns to markets in the East.
Crazy Horse 1875 and 1876 - Sioux warriors left their reservations and united under the leadership of two Sioux chiefs (Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse).
Long Drive Cattle was “driven” (herded) long distances to railheads (RR stations) & shipped East.
Closed shop Companies could only hire union members, 8 hr. workday.
Wounded Knee 1890 Lakota ignored orders and continued to perform the Ghost Dance (ritual celebrating the day when whites would be gone, buffalo would return, etc…)Battle - 25 US soldiers and 200Lakota men, women, and children killed.Last major Indian battle.
Entrepreneur A person that manages a business or enterprise.
Jane Addams Was a pioneer settlement social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. Hull House in Chicago. Provided services to poor-medical care, recreation, English classes.
Political machines This was an organized group, headed by a city boss, that controlled activities of a political party in a city.Often controlled local gov.Offered services to voters & businesses in exchange for political or financial support.
Credit Mobilier Scandal Greatly inflated construction costs & pocketed ridiculous profits! Cheated the stockholders of the RR company. But not all RR entrepreneurs were “Robber Barons”!
Tariffs Is a tax placed on goods coming into or going out of a country. Most Americans believed tariffs were necessary to protect US industries from foreign competition. Tariffs did cause prices to rise. Democrats were trying to reduce it,republicans to raise.
James Garfield Republican Party settles on James A. Garfield, an independent candidate.Twentieth President 1881 Garfield turned out to have ties to reformers…. Shortly after election, he was shot by a Stalwart!
Mass transit Transportation systems designed to move large # of people along fixed routes.
The Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883 authorized a bipartisan commission to make appointments for federal jobs based on performance.
Herbert Spencer "Human society also evolved through competition and natural selection"
Booker T. Washington Founded Tuskegee Institute.
People's Party/Populist Party Formed to address farmers' issues.
William Jennings Bryan Was nominated by Democrats and Populists for President-electrifying campaigner, but didn't appeal to NE labor.
Trade Union is an organization of workers who have united together to achieve common goals.
Fixed cost Are business expenses that are not dependent on the level of goods or services produced by the business.
Operating costs Are the expenses which are related to the operation of a business, or to the operation of a device, component, piece of equipment or facility. They are the cost of resources used by an organization just to maintain its existence.
Thomas Eakins was an American realist painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator. He is widely acknowledged to be one of the most important artists in American art history.
Ida B. Wells African-American journalist and an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented lynching in the United States, showing how it was often a way to control or punish blacks who competed with whites, often under the guise of rape charges.
Scott Joplin African-American composer and pianist. Joplin achieved fame for his ragtime compositions, and was later titled The King of Ragtime.
Abilene After 1865, settlers staked out homesteads and began farming the Great Plains - from the central Dakotas through Abilene, Texas.
Sedalia From 1866–1874, it was a railhead terminus for cattle drives and stockyards occupied a large area. At the same time, the town established separate segregated schools for white and black children, churches, and other civic amenities.
Purpose of Stock Widely used throughout the business world to moderate corporate capital.
Voting Restrictions Poll tax, Literacy tests, Intimidation.
Hardships of homestead You need to live 5 years on that land to get and the land wasn't good.
Big corporations vs small business Big corporations could squeeze out smaller businesses and force them to close.
Plessy v. Ferguson Upheld segregation, using "Separate but equal" justification.
Plight of Farmers Facing high interests rates of upwards of 10 percent a year, many farmers found it impossible to pay off their debts.The first major rural protest was the Patrons of Husbandry, which was founded in 1867 and had 1.5 million members by 1875.
"Pikes Peak or Bust" Declare of miners that rushed in Colorado near Pike Peak after gold was discovered in 1858 in that area.
Created by: sofya