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Unit 1 US History

US History

TermDefinition
City upon a Hill John Winthrop’s idea that the Puritans in New England should create a society that followed pure biblical teachings, preached charity, and followed their covenant with God
Economic Interdependency idea that each of the colonial regions of America and Britain relied upon each other to get all the products they needed
Egalitarian Society society where all people are pretty much equal to each other
Glorious Revolution gave Parliament power over the King of England after William and Mary took over control of England from King James
Great Awakening revival of religious enthusiasm in the mid 1700’s
Hierarchical Society society made up of several classes where one group has more money and power than the others
Indentured Servant Europeans who agreed to work on a person’s land for 7 years in exchange for that landowner paying for his/her passage to the United States
John Locke influenced the Declaration of Independence by establishing a basis for our natural rights, the idea that government gets its power from the people, and that the government must protect these rights
Magna Carta British document that limited the power of the King establishing no taxation without representation, jury trials, and the idea that no one is above the law
Mayflower Compact New England’s representative government that used town meetings to represent the various towns within Massachusetts
Merchants people who trade goods for aliving
Plantation Farming large farms that produce 1 or 2 cash crops (crops sold for money)
Power of the Purse ability of colonial assemblies to control their royal governors because they collected taxes and therefore controlled all the money within the colony
Quakers also known as the Society of Friends, this group, led by William Penn, founded Pennsylvania on the principles of religious tolerance and pacifism.
Roger Williams established Rhode Island for religious freedom after being banished by the Puritan church
Salutary Neglect Policy of England which allowed the colonies to govern themselves for much of the early colonial period
Slave A person, usually African, who was owned as property for life
Subsistence Farming small farms that produce just enough food for the family to consume with little extra for sale or trading
Virginia’s House of Burgesses Virginia's representative government that maintained order, passed legislature, and attracted new colonists to Virginia
Mercantilism idea that countries get rich by exporting more than they import. This is the reason Britain controlled colonial trade
Alien and Sedition Acts made it more difficult to get US citizenship and stopped people’s ability to speak out against the government
Anti-federalists believes in a strict interpretation of the constitution under the 10th Amendment, favoring a strong State government over the national government
Articles of Confederation this document was the first form of government in the United States that created a loose unification between the original 13 States and proved too weak to address national needs
Battle of Saratoga this battle showed France that the United States could win the war, causing them to invest supplies and support to help the colonial army win
Constitution the document that outlines the functions of our government and corrected issued with the first form of government in the United States
Declaration of Independence based on John Lock’s ideas, this document outlined the rights violated by the British King and declared the independence of the United States
Federalists believed in a loose construction of the constitution under the elastic clause, favoring a strong national government
Alexander Hamilton main Federalist who wanted to create a National Bank under the elastic clause of the constitution and promote American industrialization
Thomas Jefferson main Democratic Republican who thought a National Bank was unconstitutional under strict interpretation of the constitution and wanted to promote American farmers
Judicial Review Courts have the power to declare acts of Congress and the State unconstitutional
Marbury vs Madison established Judicial Review
New Jersey Plan plan for the American Government that gave each State equal representation, favored by small States
The Great Compromise established the 2 Houses of Congress, the House of Representatives basis representation on population, and the Senate giving each State equal representation through 2 Senators
3/5 Compromise Said that every 5 slaves would count as 2 people, to give the South more representatives in Congress
Shays Rebellion farmers violently protested against the foreclosure of their farms and the National Government did not have the money to provide a military to protect citizens under the Articles of Confederation
Stamp Act direct tax that required all printed material in the colonies to have a government ‘brand’ lead to people complaining “no taxation without representation”
Sugar Act violation of this tax violated colonists right to a jury trial when people were sent to admiralty (military) courts in Canada
Townshend Acts direct tax on many goods that would lead to the Boston Massacre
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Document that said that States had the right to rule national laws unconstitutional and therefore nullify (squash) them
Virginia Plan plan for the American Government that based representation on population, favored by large States
Created by: ahowe