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Physiology

Boards Part 1

QuestionAnswer
Pineal Gland produces what? melatonin, required for sleep (tryptophan -> serotonin ->melatonin)
Another name for the posterior pituitary neurohypophysis
Another name for the anterior pituitary adenohypophysis
Embryology of the anterior pituitary rathke's pouch (roof of mouth)
Embryology of the posterior pituitary Diencephalon->hypothalamus. Derived from neuroectoderm (infundibulum hypothalami)
Connection of the anterior pit. to the hypothalamus hypophyseal portal system
Connection of the posterior pit. to the hypothalamus infundibulum (neural stalk)
Hormones of the anterior pituitary? ACTH, FSH, GH, LH, MSH, Prolactin, TSH
Hormones of the posterior pituitary? ADH(supraoptic nucleus), Oxytocin(paraventricular nucleus)
ADH's function controls water balance in the kidney's
Oxytocin's function Breast milk ejection, uterus contraction
Deficiency of ADH diabetes insipidus
Hormones of the hypothalamus TRH, CRH, GnRH, GHRH, Somatostatin, Dopamine
Thyroid hormones T3, T4, Calcitonin
Pancreas hormones Insulin, Glucagon
Adrenal medulla hormones NE and Epinephrine
Kidney hormones Renin, 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol
Adrenal Cortex hormones Cortisol, Aldosterone, Adrenal androgens
Ovaries hormones Estradiol, Progesterone
Corpus Luteum hormones Estradiol, Progesterone
Placenta hormones HCG, Estriol, Progesterone, HPL
ACTH target organ Zona fasciculata of the Adrenal Cortex
FSH target organ ovary & testes; FSH must be actively inhibited by Inhibin
GH AKA Somatropin target organ All tissues except cartilage
LH target organ ovary and testes
MSH target organ Melanocytes
Prolactin target organ mammaries
TSH target organ Thyroid Follicular Cells
Effect of ACTH Release of glucocorticoids such as cortisol. gluconeogenesis when under stress or not eating. Shut down immune system
Effects of FSH Females: Release primary follicle/month and releases estrogen in proliferative phase; Males: Stimulates spermatogenesis
Effects of GH burns fat, not carbs; somatomedins(IGF) from liver is the GH for cartilage and can inhibit GH being produced through anterior pituitary or hypothalamus
Effects of LH Females: Ovulation, Forms corpus leuteum to make progesterone(secretory phase); Male: Testosterone from Leydig cells
Effects of MSH In basement layer of epidermis stimulated by UV light
Effects of Prolactin Makes milk (must be actively inhibited) and breast developement
Effect of TSH T4 -> T3; T3 is more powerful and faster acting while T4 is more abundant; Maintains BMR
Excess and deficiency of ACTH Excess = Cushings; Deficiency = Addisons
Excess and deficiency of FSH Excess = Multiple oocytes; Deficiency = Infertility
Excess and deficiency of GH Excess = Gigantism (Before growth centers close) or Acromegaly (After growth centers close); Deficiency = Dwarfism
Excess and deficiency of LH Excess = Forms corpus leuteum when up; Deficiency = degenerates CL when down
Excess and deficiency of MSH Excess = hyperpigmentation; Deficiency = Albinism
Excess and deficiency of Prolactin Excess = too much milk; Deficiency = too little milk
Excess and deficiency of TSH Excess = Hyperthyroidism/Graves; Deficiency = Myxedema/Hypothyroidism
PTH produced where? Parathyroid glands (4 posterior to thyroid)
Calcitonin produced where? parafollicular cells of thyroid
Effect of PTH Takes Ca out of bone and into blood, decreases phosphorus in blood
Effect of calcitonin Pulls Ca out of blood and puts into bone, increases phosphorus in blood
Excess of PTH HyperPTH = kidney stones, osteopenia, browns tumor, rugger jersey spine, salt and pepper skull
Excess of calcitonin Tetany (Chvostek's sign)
Embryo of adrenal cortex mesoderm derivative
Embryo of adrenal medulla neural crest cell
Adrenal cortex is made up of what and what do each produce (GFR)? Glomerulosa produces mineral corticoids such as aldosterone, Fasciculata produces glucocorticoids such as cortisol, Reticularis produces androgens such as sex hormones
Adrenal medulla produces what from what type of cells? Chromaffin cells secrete NE and E to break glycogen into glucose to raise blood sugar
FSH does 2 major things picks primary follicle and releases estrogen
Estrogen 2 major things Thickens endometrial lining(proliferative phase, thickens blood, increase's core temp) and peaks on 14th day to release LH
LH does 2 major things ovulation and forms corpus leuteum
Corpus Leuteum does 2 major things makes progesterone(secretory phase) and makes inhibin which stops FSH and no more follicles
Corpus Leuteum has 1 of 2 fates which are what? Dies when no fertilization or makes progesterone in presence of HCG
HCG comes from where and does what made by placenta after fertilization and stimulates corpus leuteum to make progesterone
FSH does what in spermatogenesis It starts it
LH's role in spermatogenesis Releases testosterone from interstitial cells of Leydig
Testosterone's role in spermatogenesis Mature's sperm
Sperms route made in somniferous tubules, matured in epididymis and stored in Vas Deferens
Inhibin's role in spermatogenesis Shut's of spermatogenesis
Where is inhibin made in males Sertoli cells make it
What raises testes? Cremaster muscle
What wrinkles scrotum? Dartos fascia
Failure of testes to descend Cryptorchism
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide does what in the GI tract? Relax's smooth muscle, inceases intestinal, panceatic and gastrin secretion
Enkephalins does what in the GI tract? Contraction of SM
Neuropeptide Y does what in the GI tract? Relaxation of SM
Substance P does what in the GI tract? Contraction of SM and Increases saliva
Gastrin comes from where? G cells in the antrum
CCK comes from where? Duodenal and jejunal endocrine I cells
Secretin comes from where? S cells in the duodenal glands
GIP comes from where? duodenal and jejunal glands K cells
5 Actions of CCK contraction of GB, secretion of pancreatic enzymes-lipase, amylase and proteases, secreation of bicarbonate ions, trophic effects on GB & pancreas, inhibition of gastric emptying and increases gastric emptying time
ACh E or I? Excites
NE, E & Dopamine E or I? Excites
Serotonin E or I? Excites
Whats a precursor to melatonin? Serotonin
GABA E or I? Inhibitory
Glutamate E or I? Excitatory
Glycine E or I? Inhibitory
NO-gas E or I? Inhibitory
What is NO-gas derived from? L-arginine
Huntingtons affects which NTX? GABA
Parkinson's affects which NTX? Dopamine
Created by: 1277880004