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SS Chap 2

The First Americans

glacier a huge rock, thick sheet of slowly moving ice
migration movement from one region to another
agriculture is farming or growing plants
civilization a group of people living together who have a system of government, religion, and culture.
pueblo is the Spanish word for town
How did the first people come to North America? by crossing a land bridge that linked Asia to North America
Explain the Land Bridge Theory Over many years, Paleo-Indians crossed the Beringia land bridge and moved into the Americas and all the way to the TIP of South America
What are mound builders? Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian Indians built giant mounds or hill out of earth to bury their dead
Where did the mound builders live? in the Ohio River Valley, the lower Mississippi Valley, over most of the Southwest, and as far north as Wisconsin
What were Kivas? underground rooms that the Ancient Pueblo used for religious ceremonies
The Aztec culture had a strong civilization. Why is this statement TRUE? The Aztecs had an organized government, religion, and culture. Their capital city, Tenochtitlan, had roads, buildings, a calendar, and lots of people. Controlled Central Mexico 1300
surplus extra of any kind of supplies
potlatch a large feast that could last for several days
clan a group of related families
What part of North America is considered the Pacific Northwest? Describe this area. the coastal area with islands and bays, from Alaska to Northern California ** rich in natural resources (salmon, spruce and cedar trees)
Which American Indian tribe lived in the farthest north in the Pacific Northwest region? Describe them. The Tlingit They were Indians who hunted and gathered from the land and waters around them. Salmon was an important resource...dried and eaten. Wood was another important resource..used for canoes, homes, and totem poles.
Why did the Indians of the Pacific Northwest have potlatches? to celebrate important events...marriages or the building of a house.
Explain why the Tlingit would use bark for clothing? no cotton for clothes...instead they used the resources they had which was cedar bark and spruce roots
What was one rule the Tlingit had about how to treat other members? a clan might pay a fine if someone insulted another clan
Explain the life of a modern day Tlingit. What state do they live in today? Alaska...
What is the purpose of a totem pole? They marked the entrance of houses and told the history of the families who lived there.
irrigation a way of supplying water to crops with streams, ditches,or pipes
staple Give examples a main crop that is used for food ... corn, beans and squash YUM!!!
ceremony a special event at which people gather to express important beliefs (Bean Dance)
Why was irrigation necessary for the Southwest Indians? Southwest had very little rainfall
What is the land/climate like in the Southwest? low, flat desert, with high plateaus and mostly a dry climate
Why couldn't the Southwest use wood to build their homes? very dry and very few trees
Name a few of the major Southwest Indians tribes and which tribe lives on Mexico? Hopi, Navajo, Apache, Suma, Yaqui and PUEBLO!! The Concho live in Mexico
What resources did the Hopi use to build their homes? because there were so few trees they used sticks, stones, and adobe (clay)
Why did the Southwest Indians grow crops instead of hunting and gathering? A dry climate means a limited amount of animals and plants to hunt and gather
What did the Hopi religion say about who should take care of the land? the people are the caretakers of the land
lodge a home the Plains Indians made using bark, earth and grass
nomad a person who moves around and does not live in one place
travois a sled used for carrying belongings
How did the tribes of the Eastern Plains find food? they hunted buffalo and farmed their land
Describe the land of the Eastern Plains tall grasses that received enough rain for farming, and rolling hills
name the tribes of the Plains Indians and which lived in Texas Blackfoot, Crow, Iowa, Lakota and in Texas were the Comanche and Tonkawa
What type of Indians were the comanche? fierce warriors and nomads who wandered the plains
Why was the horse so valuable for the Plains Indians? horses made it easier to hunt and travel
What was the role of the chief? to talk about and decide issues, organize war and peace
make a graphic organizer for Western Plains Indians versus Eastern Plain Indians pg 63
Created by: Team 5th