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Immuno Final-2/2

T3 Micro & Immuno

Describe Attenuated vaccines (live)-active microbes-contact immunity
Describe Inactivated vaccines (killed)-adjuvants- humoral- boosters needed
Describe Toxoid vaccines (toxin-like)-modified toxins to stimulate immunity-humoral, boosters needed
Describe Combination vaccines antigens from several pathogens (ex:DPT)
Describe Recombinant gene vaccines Cells will take up that recombinant DNA. The DNA then instructs cells to make the antigen molecules. -In other words, the body’s own cells become vaccine-making factories.
How does a DNA vaccine work? DNA instructs cells to make the antigen molecules. Attenuation: weakened-virulence is reduced
What are advantages and disadvantages of each type of vaccine? Immunocompromised individuals may develop infection, toxicity
What is contact immunity? Immunity that can be passed on to others
What is herd immunity? community immunity: if a significant portion of the population is immunized, it provides immunity to those who are not
What is the function of adjuvants? added to inactivated vaccines to increase effective antigenicity
When is passive immunotherapy used? when immediate protection is required
What is the difference between antisera and monoclonal antibodies? Antisera:degraded quickly, limited Monoclonal:hybridoma
What is the purpose of immune testing? To monitor the spread of an infection through a population, or to establish a diagnosis within an individual.
What is direct immune testing? Testing for the presence of a specific antigen
What is indirect immune testing? Testing for the presence of a specific antibody
Define Precipitation clumping of soluble components, antibodies and antigens in the proper proportion for large complexes called precipitates
Define Agglutination clumping of particulate components, cross-linking of antibodies with particulate antigens
What is the definition of a titer? The highest dilution of serum that results in agglutination of antibody/antigen ( + test)
Viral neutralization and hemagglutination: What can they test? They are used to determine if an individual has been exposed to a particular virus based on the antibodies that are present
Viral neutralization and hemagglutination: How are they similar and how are they different? -Viral neutralization: uses cytopathic effect -Viral hemagglutination: used for viruses that aren’t cytopathic *serum will not hemagglutinate if it has antibodies against the specific virus *useful for influenza, measles, mumps
What outcome can be easily observed in the complement fixation test? presence of specific antibodies with particulate antigens
Name 3 types of labeled antibody tests Fluorescent antibody test, ELISA, and Western Blot
What is fluorescein? a fluorescent dye used as a label for the fluorescent antibody test
What is the label in the ELISA test? an enzyme
is the label in the Western Blot test? Proteins and glycoproteins
What does the ELISA test for? used to detect the presence of antibodies in serum (indirect)
What does the antibody sandwich ELISA test for? used to detect the presence of antigens in serum (direct)
Why is the ELISA test much more commonly used than the antibody sandwich ELISA? because the the antibody sandwich ELISA you need to produce specific monoclonal antibodies before you can do the test, which takes time and is more expensive.
What can be tested for with the Western Blot test? Can detect antibodies against multiple antigens. It is commonly used as a followup to the ELISA to test for HIV
Which type of test is used in immunochromatography (as used in pregnancy tests or the strep throat test used in Module 4)? ELISA
What is HLA? Human Leukocyte Antigen
Define Autograft self transplant
Define Isograft genetically identical sibling or clone (twin)
Define Allograft genetically different member of same species
Define Xenograft genetically different member of another species
Differentiate primary from acquired immunodeficiencies. primary:from genetic or developmental problems-show early in life secondary (acquired):from influences on human being-malnutrition, stress, age, AIDS
What are general signs and symptoms of immunodeficiencies? frequent infections, recurring infections, opportunistic infections
Bruton’s disease? congenital X linked agammaglobulinemia (more common in males)
common variable immunodeficiency? congenital, or acquired, plasma decreases
isolated IgA deficiency? most common, IgA decreases
DiGeorge Syndrome? T-lymphocyte-developmental, results from faulty development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, and thus a small or lacking thymus
SCID? defect on humoral and cell mediated responses-most serious and most deadly
Chronic granulomatous disease? phagocytes
Complement deficiencies? C3 deficiency
What can cause acquired immunodeficiencies? Severe stress, malnutrition and environmental factors, certain medical treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation, etc.
Which cells are infected by HIV, and which receptor and co-receptors play a role? *Macrophages/dendritic cells: CD4 receptor CCR5 co-receptor *T-helper Cells: CD4 receptor CXCR4 co-receptor
What are the stages of HIV replication? Primary infection, clinical latency, opportunistic diseases stage (AIDS), death
What are the signs and symptoms in each stage of HIV replication? *Primary infection: severe flu like symptoms *clinical latency: usually asymptomatic *opportunistic disease stage: development of AIDS and other diseases
What is an opportunistic infection? an infection that does not normally occur in a healthy individual, but occurs during an immunodeficient or immune compromised state.
Give two examples of an opportunistic infection Examples that occur with AIDS: disseminated herpes, kaposi sarcoma
What are the two major routes of transmission of AIDS? sexual intercourse, IV drug use (sharing needles)
How can HIV be transmitted from mother to child? via the placenta, or through breast milk in high enough concentrations
Created by: Snowrow