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Immuno Final-1/2

T3 Micro & Immuno

QuestionAnswer
Innate Immunity Characteristics: Born with it, 1st & 2nd line of Defense, Non-Specific, Fast, No Memory
Acquired Immunity Charachteristics: Develops after birth, 3rd line of defense, Specific, Slow, Immunologic memory
Name major components of the 1st line of defense Physical & Chemical Barriers
Name major components of the 2nd line of defense Fever, Inflammation, Non-Phagocytic Killing, & Phagocytosis via: *Macrophages (monocytes), *Neutrophils (most abundant WBC type), & *Dendritic Cells
Name major components of the 3rd line of defense Humoral Immunity (antibodies) & Cell-mediated Immunity
List the properties of skin that create the first line of defense. -Dermis: Contains collagen-hard to pass through -Sebum: Keeps skin oily & moist -Defensins(Antimicrobial Peptides): +charged chains of 20-25 AA’s which fight microorganisms -Dendritic Cells: Phagocytize pathogens
List the properties of mucous membranes that create the first line of defense. -Thin Epithelium: Provides a thin barrier -Epithelial Cells: Tightly packed -Dendritic Cells: Phagocytize invaders -Goblet Cells: Secrete mucus traps for bacteria
How do normal flora microbes contribute to defending our body at the first line of defense? -consume nutrients -change your gut pH -provide several important vitamins to the body. ie: Biotin, Pantothenic Acid, & Folic Acid
How does Saliva contribute to the first line of defense? Washes microbes from teeth, gums,tongue, and palate; contains lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme
How does Stomach acid contribute to the first line of defense? Digests and/or inhibits microorganisms
How does Gastroferritin contribute to the first line of defense? Sequesters iron being absorbed, making it unavailable for microbial use
How does Bile contribute to the first line of defense? Inhibitory to most microorganisms
How do Intestinal secretions contribute to the first line of defense? Digests and/or inhibits microorganisms
How does Peristalsis contribute to the first line of defense? Moves gastrointestinal (GI) contents through GI tract, constantly eliminating potential pathogens
How does Defecation & Vomiting contribute to the first line of defense? Eliminates microorganisms
How does Urine contribute to the first line of defense? Contains lysozyme; urine’s acidity inhibits microorganisms; may wash microbes from ureters and urethra during urination
How do Vaginal secretions contribute to the first line of defense? Acidity inhibits microorganisms; contains iron-binding proteins that sequester iron, making it unavailable for microbial use
How does Menstrual flow contribute to the first line of defense? Cleanses uterus and vagina
How do Prostate secretions contribute to the first line of defense? Contains iron-binding proteins that sequester iron, making it unavailable for microbial use
How does Blood flow contribute to the first line of defense? Removes microorganisms from wounds
How does Coagulation contribute to the first line of defense? Prevents entrance of many pathogens
What is the function of lysozyme? destroys the cell walls of bacteria by cleaving the bonds between the sugar subunits of the walls - cleaves peptidoglycans
Which are non-specific white blood cells? basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, NK lymphocytes
Which are specific white blood cells? lymphocytes
Which cells have primarily phagocytic function? monocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils, eosinophils
What can one learn from a differential lab analysis? -You can see the ranges for the normal values for each kind of white blood cell, expressed as a percentage of the total leukocyte population
An increase in eosinophils can indicate: Allergies or infection with parasitic worms
An increase in number of leukocytes & neutrophils can indicate? Bacterial diseases
An increase in the relative number of lymphocytes can indicate? Viral infections
describe the three activation pathways of the complement system •Classical pathway, antibodies activate complement. •Alternative pathway, pathogens or pathogenic products (ie: bacterial endotoxins and glycoproteins) activate complement. •Lectin pathway, microbial polysaccharides bind to activating molecules.
describe the three outcomes of the complement system -Inflammation(C3a & C5a) -Opsonization(C3b) -Membrane Attack Complex(MACs) (C5b)
Discuss the process of inflammation. Increases blood flow, capillary permeability, and migration of leukocytes/phagocytes into infected area; walls off infected region, increases local temperature
Name the Three very important functions of acute inflammation 1. Destroying agent causing injury 2. limiting effects of agent on rest of body 3. repair and replacing damaged tissue.
In inflammation, what is the function of histamine? Dilation of blood vessels (vasodilation) and increased blood flow to area
In inflammation, what is the function of prostaglandins and leukotriene? Make the blood vessels more permeable. Also associated with arachidonic acid (omega 6)
Increased blood flow leads to: redness and heat
increase permeability leads to: swelling (and this leads to pain)
What is a pyrogen? A Fever inducing substance
What can act as a pyrogen? – Bacterial toxins – Cytoplasmic contents of bacteria released by lysis – Antibody-antigen complexes – Interferons, interleukin 1 (IL-1)
What are the benefits of fevers? – Slows down growth of many microorganisms – Enhances effects of interferons – Possibly also enhances: Phagocytosis, Cells of specific immune response, process of tissue repair
What are the steps of phagocytosis? chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, maturation, killing, and elimination
Which immune cells are involved in non-phagocytic killing? Eosinophils, Natural Killer (NK) Lymphocytes, and Neutrophils
What is the function of toll-like receptors(TLR's)? -They trigger your body’s innate immune response to microbial molecules(referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) -Binding/recognition of PAMPs to TLRs initiates defense responses
What is the function of NOD proteins -recognize microbial molecules, such as PAMPs, but are located INSIDE the cell (cytosolic). -They trigger inflammation, apoptosis, and other innate immune responses.
What are Interferons? -protein molecules released by host cells to nonspecifically inhibit the spread of viral infections
What is the function of Type I(alpha & beta) Interferons? - 2nd line of defense -present early viral infections (w/in hours) -activate NK Lymphocytes/trigger protective steps in neighboring uninfected cells, -production of antiviral proteins (AVPs).
What is the function of Type II(gamma) Interferons? - 3rd line of defense -appear days after initial viral infection as a result of adaptive immune responses -produced by activated T lymphocytes and NK lymphocytes -stimulates phagocytic activity of macrophages and neutrophils.
What are toll-like receptors(TLR's)? Transmembrane, or integral, signal receptor proteins found in cytoplasmic membranes of phagocytic cells.
List five attributes of adaptive immunity. (Acronym: S.I.C.U.M) -Specificity -Inducibility -Clonality -Unresponsive to Self -Memory
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Location of maturation T:thymus B:Red bone marrow
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Location after maturation T:lymph & blood B:spleen, lymph nodes, MALT
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Type of immune response T:humoral & cell mediated B:humoral
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Mode of action T:Direct: cell-cell B:via antibodies
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Life span T:long B:short
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Appearance in microscope T:same B:same
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Structure T:variable, constant, antigen binding site B:heavy chain, light chain, antigen binding site
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Proportions T:5% B:23%
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Receptors T:TCR do not directly recognize B:BCR directly recognizes 1 epitope only
T-Lymphocytes & B-Lymphocytes Targets T:Endogenous antigens B:Exogenous antigens
What is an antigen? Molecule the body recognizes as foreign and worthy of attack
What is an epitope? 3 dimensional regions that help body recognize an antigen
What is the purpose of clonal deletion? Prevents immune responses against autoantigens
Name the main lymphoid tissues and organs Tissues: lymphatic vessels Organs: *primary: red bone marrow, thymus *secondary: lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, MALT(mucosa associated lymphatic tissue)
In lymph nodes, what happens in the medulla? web of lymph vessels-interact with lymphocytes
In lymph nodes, what happens in the germinal centers? B cell clones mature
Describe the basic structure of an immunoglobulin protein 4 polypeptides (2 light chains, 2 heavy chains joined via disulfide bonds to form a “Y” shaped molecule)
Describe the function of immunoglobulin IgG major humoral immunity, all functions, in newborns-can cross placenta
Describe the function of immunoglobulin IgA secreting tears, saliva, in breast milk, agglutination and neutralization
Describe the function of immunoglobulin IgM initial immunoglobulin after infection starts, all functions, large complex
Describe the function of immunoglobulin IgE increase eosinophils(helminthic infections), increase histamine-by mast cells, allergic reactions
Describe the function of immunoglobulin IgD concentration initially increases in serum in humoral response
What are outcomes of antibodies binding to an antigen? -Agglutination: 2 antigen binding sites -Neutralization: bind and block -opsonization: phagocytosis -activation of compliment and inflammation oxidation killing -direct cytotoxicity
What are functions of Interleukins communication between WBC
What are functions of interferons antiviral protein- upregulates immune response
What are functions of growth factors increase rate of cell division(clones of lymphocytes)
What are functions of tumor necrosis factor increase killing of tumor cells, increase inflammation
What are functions of chemokines spur chemotaxis
Describe MHC1 in all nucleated cells, informs immune system of intracellular pathogens, self regulation
Describe MHC2 antigen presenting cells, in B lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells
Name the three types of antigen presenting cells B lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells
What is antigen processing? Antigens processed for MHC proteins to display epitopes
Describe the events that lead to a T-independent cell mediated immune response simplest: has to get antigen into lymphatic system
Describe the events that lead to a T-dependent cell mediated immune response fast multiplying, but short lived
Find examples where the different lines of defense are collaborating and relying on each other T cells and B cells both contribute to immunological memory. this is an example of the humoral and cell mediated responses working together.
What’s the difference between cytotoxic T cells and T helper cells? Tc cells are activated via: antigen presentation Th cell differentiation (1 and 2)→ clonal expansion→ self stimulation Tc cells kill virus infected cells and tumor cells. Th cells upregulate the immune response.
What is the purpose of immunologic memory? Initiation/sending of an antibody, if antigen is encountered again
Describe the primary immune response to an antigen -slow to develop -limited effectiveness
Describe the secondary immune response to an antigen -activation of memory cells ensures that the immune response is rapid and strong
Describe naturally acquired active and passive immunity and give examples of each Active: has immunologic memory (stable) -ex:accidental infection Passive:no memory -ex: IgG through placenta
Describe artificially acquired active and passive immunity and give examples of each Active: receive antigen -ex: vaccination, Immunization Passive: receive antibodies into serum -ex: immunotherapy
Created by: Snowrow