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AP Bio Chapter 4

Organic Chemistry The branch of chemistry that specializes in carbon compounds
Hydrocarbons Organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
Isomers Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures and hence different properties
Structural Isomers Differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms
Geometric Isomers Same covalent arrangements, but different spatial arrangements
Enantiomers Molecules that are mirror images of each other
Functional Groups The components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions
Hydroxyl Group A hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule
Carbonyl Group A carbon double-bonded to an oxygen
Alsehyde When a carbonyl group at the end of a carbon skeleton
Ketone When a carbonyl group is not at the end of a carbon skeleton
Carboxyl Group When a carbonyl is bonded to a hydroxyl
Carboxylic Acid A compound containing a carboxyl group
Amino Group Two hydrogen atoms bonded to a nitrogen atom
Amines Any organic compound with an amino group
Sulfhydryl Group A sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, resembling a hydroxyl group
Thiols Organic compounds containing sulfhydryls
Phosphate Groups Compounds that have a phosphate ion covalently attached to the carbon structure via an oxygen atom