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Infectious Disease

NWHSU- ID final

Bird handlers are at risk for what Chlamydia disease? Chlamydia psittaci (bacteria)
What are the signs and symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia? Rapid rise in temperature (103 to105 F), o Chestpain o Chills o Productive cough; purulent or blood-tinged o Severe case: cyanosis and confusion
What is the most common cause of community-acquired typical pneumonia? Streptococcus pneumoniae (bacteria)
What is the most common cause of atypical pneumonia? Mycoplasma pneumoniae (pro-karyote)
What are the 2 diseases caused by Hantaviruses and which is more important to the U.S.? 1) Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (most important) 2) Hemorrhagic Fever with renal syndrome
Which 2 fungal diseases are associated with bird droppings? 1) Histoplasmosis 2) Cryptococcosis
Which yeast has a large capsule that is a virulence factor? Pneumocystis pneumonia (Caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci)
Give the geographical location for this systemic fungal infection: BLASTOMYCOSIS South central, southeastern, and midwestern US
Give the geographical location for this systemic fungal infection: HISTOPLASMOSIS Endemic in parts of central and eastern US along the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys
Give the geographical location for this systemic fungal infection: COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS Endemic in the southwestern US
Pneumocystis is a common cause of pneumonia in what group of people? HIV positive individuals
What fungus can cause a non-invasive infection characterized by a "fungus ball" that forms on pulmonary surfaces? Apergillosis
What age group is most seriously affected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)? Infants
What kind of infectious agents cause most colds? 90% are caused by viruses
What is the most common bacterial cause of pharyngitis (sore throat)? Streptococcus pyogenes
What are the most common causes of a secondary bacterial infection in a patient with influenza? ?
What bacteria cause Scarlet Fever? "Strep" (throat with a rash)
Why is it important to treat a Strep throat? It may spread to other parts of the body and cause Acute glomerulonephritis or Rheumatic Fever
Define: ANTIGENIC DRIFT Slight mutation in a single strand
Define: ANTIGENIC SHIFT 2 different strains infect the same cell and reassert RNA strands to make a new strain
Describe the course of a TB infection? 1) Pathology includes forming a tubercle in the lung 2) When the infection is arrested, the tubercle undergoes fibrosis and calcification 3) Viable bacteria may remain inside
In what cell can Mycobacterium tuberculosis survive and grow? Macrophages
What do MDR-TB and XDR-TB mean? MDR-TB= Resistant to rifampin and isoniazid XDR-TB= Resistant to first line plus a fluoroquinolone and one second line injectable drug
What 2 bacteria cause about 70% of sinusitis infections? 1) Streptococcus pneumoniae 2) Haemophilus influenzae
What bacteria are a common cause of otitis media? 1) Streptococcus pneumoniae 2) Haemophilus influenzae
Describe the stages of Pertussis (whooping cough)? 1) Typical cold symptoms (Catarrhal stage) 2) Explosive cough with rapid inhalation (Spasmadic stage)
Diphtheria has 2 different pathological problems, what are they? 1) a grayish pharyngeal membrane may form cutting off air supply 2) a toxin may be formed that can affect the nerves and heart (via blood)
Describe the possible course of a Nocardia infection? 1) Resulting pneumonia is chronic with abscesses, extensive necrosis, and cavity formation 2) May metastasize to brain or kidneys
What bacteria cause most urinary tract infections? E. coli
What bacteria cause about 30% of urinary tract infections in women? Staphylococcus saprophyticus
What STDs are characterized by genital ulcers/lesions? Genital herpes, syphillis, chancroid, lymph granuloma vanereum
Describe the stages of syphilis? 1-principle lesion is chancre, painless, full of bacteria 2-rash appears with fever, malaise latent-Test positive, but have no symptoms (may last 3-30 yrs) 3-may have granumatous lesions in the rest of the body- not contagious
How is syphilis diagnosed? Serological tests (treponemal and non-treponemal
What bacteria cause chancroid? Haemophilus ducreyi
What bacteria are the most common causes of pelvic inflammatory disease? (2) -Neisseria gonorrhoeae -Clamydia trachomatis
When a DR suspects gonorrhea and requests the lab to do a gram stain of urethra discharge, what should the lab look for? May be seen in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, gram (-) cocci
What virus causes genital warts and an increased risk of cervical cancer? Human papilloma virus
What protozoa cause genital infections? Trichomonas vaginalis
Which viruses can cause congenital and newborn infections? o Cytomegalovirus(CMV) o Herpessimplexvirus(HSV) o HepatitisBvirus o Rubellavirus o Humanimmunodeficiencyvirus(HIV) o ParvovirusB19
What bacteria are most likely to cause meningitis in newborns? -Listeria -E. coli -Group B strep
How does one become infected with Toxoplasma? -Eating undercooked meat thats infected -Eating infected cat feces
Which bacteria can cause neonatal eye infections? -Neisseria gonorrhoeae -Clamydia trachomatis
What are 3 different disease courses that the herpes simplex virus can cause in newborns? -Skin lesions -Encephalitis -Disseminated infection
How does the rubella virus cause congenital problems? The virus inhibits mitosis and doesn't allow the organs to grow
Why is it dangerous for pregnant women to have a Listeria infection? The bacteria can cross the bloodstream/placenta
What cells in humans do the malaria parasites infect? RBCs
What are the classic malaria symptoms? -Chills and fever in regular intervals -Sweating and malaise when fever drops
What stage of Plasmodium in the mosquito infects humans? Sporozoites
What stage of Plasmodium in humans infects mosquitos? Gametocytes
Which of the 4 species that cause malaria is the most serious? P. falciparum
Discuss the pathology of a malaria infection? RBC destruction leading to anemia, Enlarged spleen and liver, capillary occlusions, hemorrhage, anoxia in brain
Compare the fever cycle in brucellosis with that in relapsing fever. In Brucellosis the fever rises and falls everyday (undulating). In relapsing fever the fever lasts for several days, goes away for about a week and then returns again.
Describe the 2 types of plague. -Bubonic plague affects the lymph nodes and forms lumps (not spread person to person. -Pneumonic plague affects the lungs (can be spread person to person)
What tissue does the Trichinella larvae infect? Skeletal muscle
How does man acquire hydatid cyst disease? Ingesting eggs
What tapeworm causes hydatid cysts disease? Echinococcus granulosus
In what tissue does Trypanosoma cruzi cause the most serious problems? Muscle cells of myocardium
Describe the 3 eye diseases cause by Clamydia trachomatis? -Neonatal conjunctivitis -Inclusion conjunctivitis in adults -Trachoma
What free-living amoeba can cause a potentially serious eye infection? Acanthamoeba
Describe the signs and symptoms of mumps? Swelling in the parotid glands -Orchitis in males -Meningitis
In what cells does the Epstein-Barr virus remain latent? (causes infectious mono) B-lymphocytes
Compare the 2 forms of Dengue infection. -Dengue fever= high fever, self-limiting, severe pain in muscles and head -Dengue hemorrhagic fever= reinfection causing hyper-immune response, shock (possibly death)
Created by: Heirtotheshadows