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Infectious Disease

midterm review

Study of the distribution & determinants of disease frequency in populations epidemiology
What is relative risk? increased rate in exposed/increased rate in nonexposed; done in cohort studies
What is an odds-ratio? Estimate what the relative risk would be if cohorts were done. Used in case-control studies
What are sources of error in epidemiology studies? confounding & bias
Ability of a test to identify all screened individuals who actuall has the disease sensitivity
Ability of a test to identify nondiseased individuals who do not have the disease specificity
Can both the sensitivity and specifity be 100%? No
Which test has few false negatives? sensitivity test
Which test has few false positives? specificity test
Study in which the population group that is followed over time is evaluated for exposure of interest and over time are monitered for the disease of interest cohort studies
Study in which compares 2 groups at a time and both groups are than evaluated for the exposure case-control studies
Compare direct and indirect transmission. direct is person to person and indirect uses a vector
Explain why HIV has such a high rate of mutation. reverse transcriptase is very prone to erro and can't proofread
What are some of the infections that HIV positive individuals are at higher risk for? TB, salmonella, HSV-1, cytomegalovirus, candidiasis, toxoplasmosis, fungal lung infections that disseminate
What are the 3 stages of an HIV infection? Acute, Latency, AIDS
Describe the acute stage of an HIV infection flu-like symptoms, occurs after several weeks, increases virus in blood, circulating antibodies appear.
Describe the latency stage of an HIV infection asymptomatic, they are in this stage as long as the immune system is functional, decrease in the virus, decrease in CD4 cells, opportunistic infections is possible and it last approx. 10 years.
Describe the AIDS stage of and HIV infection CD4 decreases below 200/ml, malignancies associated with AIDS occur(kaposi, lymphoma's), lead to dementia, increase chance of opportunistic infections
What are the ways the HIV virus is transmitted? sex, contaminated needles, transfusions, perinatal transmission including breast milk
What is the function of reverse transcriptase? viral RNA to DNA
What is the function of integrase? cleaves host DNA and inserts viral DNA into it
What is the function of protease? cleaves polyprotein into proteins which than assemble into mature virus
While many fungal infections are acquired by spore inhalation, what are some that are spread person-to-person? tinea pedis - athletes foot; tinea corporis - ringworm; tinea capitus - scalp ringworm
What are the 2 types of leprosy? tuberculoid, lepromatous
Describe tuberculoid leprosy host increases resistant, macular lesions in cooler body tissues such as nose and outer ear
Describe lepromatous leprosy lack's resistance, extensive skin destuction, nodues
Most commmon fom of leprosy? mixture of tuberculoid and lepromatous
What two bacteria that cause skin lesions are considered animal pathogens? bacillus anthracis(cutneous anthrax) & francisella tularesis(tularemia)
What are the 3 forms of leishmaniasis? cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral
Describe cutaneous leishmaniasis skin sores that leave scars
Describe mucocutaneous leishmaniasis multiple lesions, parasite attacks mucosal-dermal junctions of nose and mouth and can destroy the nasal septum
Describe visceral leishmaniasis in spleen, liver and bone marrow
What cells do the Leishmania parasites invade? macrophages
Chronic infectio with this tissue nematode can lead to elephantiasis? wuchereria bancrofti & brugia malayi
Causative agent, vector and the symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever wood tick, rash on limbs first occurs
Causative agent, vector and the symptoms of epidemic typhus fever rickettsia prowazcki, body louse, rash on trunk than limbs with increased fever
Causative agent, vector and the symptoms of endemic typhus fever rickettsia typhi, rat flea, rash on chest and abs.
Brill-Zinsser disease is a recurrence of what disease? Epidemic Typhus Fever?
What 3 diseases/infectious agents are transmitted by the deer tick? Lymes disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis
Causative agent of anaplasmosis anaplasma phagocytophilum
Causative agent of ehrlichiosis ehrlichia chaffeensis
Vector of anaplasmosis deer tick
Vector of ehrlichiosis lone star tick
Geographical location of ehrlichiosis southeast US
Cells infected by anaplasmosis neutrophils
Cells infected by ehrlichiosis monocytes
What filarial worm can cause blindness? onchecerea volvulus
What cells do the babesia parasites infect? RBC?
Name the organism that is the most common cause of bone infections? Staph aureus
Name the organism that is the most common cause of septic arthritis? Staph aureus
Individuals that work with plants such as farmers or gardeners are at risk for what subcutaneous fungal infection? sporotrichosis
Someone who has shingles has had what viral infection in the past? chicken pox
Kiplik spots are considered diagnostic for what infection? Measles AKA Rubeola
Why is it dangerous for a pregnant woman to contract rubella AKD German Measles? miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital defects
What is Reye's syndrome? Syndrome that follows a viral infection; Sx include rash, vomiting, acute encephalopathy, lilver malfunction....
What medication may be associated with Reye's syndrome? aspirin in children
Which virus causes the "slapped check" rash? parovirus B19
Discuss some barriers in the GI tract to infectious agents? unbroken epithelium covering all parts, epithelial cell surface structures, mucous, aciditiy of stomach, bile, normal flora
What is an infection in the GI tract? Infection is when ingesting food contaminated, the bacteria will grow into the GI and cause symptoms. often times producing toxins.
What is an intoxication in the GI tract? Intoxication is when bacteria grow in food and produces a toxin. When ingested this causes the symptoms.
Examples of infecious agents that cause an intoxication in the GI tract? staph aureus, bacillus cereus, clostridium perfrinigens, clostridium botulinum
What age group is most likely to have a rotavirus infection? infants and young children
What is infant botulism? floppy baby syndrome and they have neurological symptoms
Name 2 protozoans that cause a non-inflammatory gastroenteritis? giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium parvum
Long term broad-spectrum use of antibiotics puts a patient at risk for infection with what bacteria? clostridium difficule
What 2 diseases do species of Salmonella cause? gastroenteritis(food poisening) & typhoid fever(enteric fever)
How would u diagnose ascaris? finding eggs in a stool sample
How would u diagnose necator? finding eggs in a stool sample
How would u diagnose strongyloides? finding larvae in a stool sample
How would u diagnose trichuris? finding eggs in a stoold sample
How would u diagnose enterobius? scotch tape test
What is the intermediate host for Taenia saginata? beef tapeworm
What is the intermediate host for Taenia solium? pork tapeworm
What is the intermediate host for Diphyllobothrium latum? fish tapeworm
With which of the tapeworms can a man be an accidental intermediate host? pork tapeworm
Which tapeworm competes with the host for vitamin B12? fish tapeworm
In which nematodes does the larval stage migrate through the lungs before becoming adults in the intestines? Ascaris lumbricoides, Necatar americanus, Strongyoides sterocoralis, Ancylostoma duodenale
Which intestinal nematode infection can have an auto-infection because the worm eggs hatch in the intestine? strongyloides stercoralis
What parasite causes amebic dysentery? Entamoeba histolytica
Trematode parasites have what organism as an intermediate host? snail and water plants
Which hepatitis viruses are considered fecal-borne? A & E
Which hepatitis viruses are considered blood-borne? B, C & D
What are the signs/symptoms for all acute viral hepatitis infections? ferver, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, jaundice, dark urine & clay-colored stools, increased liver enzymes and hepatomegaly
What is unique about hepatits D? requires the presence of HBV for transmission
Which hepatitis infections can progress to a chronic infection? Hep B and Hep C
How is yellow fever transmitted? mosquitos
How is an infection with Schistosoma acquired? direct skin penetration
How is an infection with Schistosoma diagnosed? eggs in stool or urine sample
What are 2 liver flukes or trematodes Clonorchis sinensis & Fasicula hepatica
What are the intermediate hosts for the liver flukes? snail & fish
What are the signs & sx of acute bacterial meningitis? fever/chills, HA, malaise, stiff neck, vomiting, eye problems, petechia, myalgia, drowsiness, impaired mental development & hearing loss in kids
What free-living amoeba causes an acute, often-fatal meningoencephalitis? Naegleria fowleri
What 3 groups of viruses can cause viral meningitis or viral encephalitis? enterovirus, arbovirus, herpes simplex
Infectious agents likely for bacterial meningitis from newborns to 3 months? E Coli, Group B Strep, Listeria monocytogens
Infectious agents likely for bacterial meningitis from 3 months to 6 months? Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Streptococcus pneumoniae
Infectious agents likely for bacterial meningitis from over 6 months of age to adults? Streptococcus pneumoniae & Neisseria mengitides
What are the 3 clinical forms of polio? absorptive, asceptic/non-paralytic, paralytic
Describe absorptive polio most common, asymptomatic or fever, HA, malaise, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, rapid recovery, illness is mild and usually not diagnosed
Describe aseptic/non-paralytic polio enters CNS, sx of absorptive polio plus stiff neck and back, 1 week recovery
Describe paralytic polio extension of aseptic polio, destroys large motor neurons in anterior horn causing paralysis, may affect neurons in medulla & brainstem affecting respiratory or vasomotor center, most cases recover in 6-24 months
What is post polio syndrome? unexpected fatigue/px/weakness, happens 30-40 years later but can occur in any paralytic polio case even with full recovery, virus is not involved
How does the rabies virus reach the CNS? bite site through PNS
When a lab does an India ink prep of spinal fluid, what are they looking for? cryptococcus neoformans yeast with capsules
What is the mechanism of tetanus toxin? Affects CNS and blooks the release of inhibiting NTX resulting in excitation of motor neurons, spasmatic contractions occur
What is the mechanism of botulism toxin? Inhibition of ACh preventing contraction causing flaccid paralysis
What are the 3 different botulism infections? classic, infant & wound
Describe classic botulism caused by food poisening by ingesting toxins already in food
Describe infant botulism ingest spores that grow as bacteria in the intestine than produce toxins in the GI
Describe wound botulism grow in wound and produce toxins
What are the S/S of CJD? loss of motor control, dementia, paralysis wasting & death
What are the 3 variations of CJD? classic, variant, genetic
Describe classic CJD? sporadic; median death age is 68
Describe variant CJD? bovine spongiform encephalopathy (cattle disease), 28 years is median age of death
Describe genetic CJD? inherit a mutated PP gene
Created by: 1277880004