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Neurodiagnosis Final

NWHSU- Comprehensive Conditions involving the nervous system

QuestionAnswer
Define: Agnosia Inability to interpret sensations and therefore cannot recognize things. Occurs with brain damage
Define: Akathisia Subjective feeling, defined as a sense of inner restlessness, that may be associated with adventitious movements. Sensation of inner restlessness tends to elicit movements that help relieve the inner tension.
Define: Allodynia Pain response to a non-noxious stimulus
Define: Analgesia A loss of pain sense [pg 22 lab]
Define: Anesthesia Insensitivity to pain
Define: Anosmia Loss in the sense of smell
Define: Aphasia problems understanding and/or speaking language that is written or spoken
Define: Apraxia Inability to perform particular purposive actions. Usually results from brain damage.
Define: Ataxia (gait, trunk) unsteadiness in the absence of any sensation of movement. Disequilibrium w/o any fluctuation in consciousness, abnormal gait.
Define: Athetosis Moving dystonia. Slow, writhing dystonic posturing of the distal limbs, especially fingers, hand, wrist.
Define: Asterixis Sudden relaxation of muscles held against gravity. "negative myoclonus". "flapping tremor"
Define: Ballismus Wild, flailing, sometimes violent movements. It is a subtype of chorea ("big chorea") Fast, usually proximal movements, usually one-side (hemiballism) (caused by sub thalamic stroke)
Define: Bradykinesia Slow movement
Define: Chorea Rapid and flowing movement of one or more body parts that is not stereotyped, manifested as a random event. Involuntary.
Define: Choreiform Movement Brief, quick jerky movements accompanied by brief, purposeless movements of upper limbs, head, neck, and face. Walking can have extreme lurching/dancing quality
Define: Clonus Spasmodic alternation of contraction and relaxation (sign of UMN dz)
Define: Cognitive Deficits
Define: Diminished Visual Acuity
Define: Diplopia Double vision
Define: Dizziness Uncomfortable inner feeling of confusion (types include: vertigo, light-headedness, imbalance, psychic change)
Define: Dysarthria Trouble Speaking
Define: Dysdiadokinesia Diminution in alternate motion rate and the irregularity of its rhythm, precision, and amplitude
Define: Dysesthesia Unpleasant, abnormal sense of touch
Define: Dyskinesia Abnormality or impairment of voluntary movement
Define: Dysmetria Over or undershooting movements
Define: Dysphagia Difficulty or discomfort swallowing
Define: Dysphonia Difficulty in speaking due to a physical disorder of the mouth, tongue, throat, or vocal cords.
Define: Dyssynergia Difficulty with coordination in movement (ex. dressing, buttoning clothing)
Define: Dystaxia Uncoordinated movement due to muscle control problem causing an inability to coordinate movements. It leads to a jerky, unsteady, to-and-fro motion of the middle of the body (trunk) and an unsteady gait (walking style). It can also affect the limbs.
Define: Dystonia Continuous, intermittent contraction of many muscles making body parts turn. Bizarre and unpredictable movements. Spasmodic torticollis.
Define: Fasciculation Irregular contractions of muscle fascicles (classic sign of LMN disease). Twitches observed/palpated in resting muscle.
Define: Fever Abnormally high body temperature, usually accompanied by shivering, headache, and in severe instances, delirium.
Define: Fibrillation Spontaneous independent contractions of individual muscle fibers. Cannot be observed or palpated. (EMG evidence can be found in denervated muscle beginning 10-21 days AFTER muscle has been deprived of nerve supply)
Define: Flaccidity Complete loss in muscle tone
Define: Gait Abnormality: ATAXIA Clumsiness and uncertainty, feet planted too far apart, swing leg lifted abruptly and too high and planted with a slap/stomp. Tendency to sway or totter.
Define: Gait Abnormality: STEPPAGE Patient with foot drop lifts the hip and knee to avoid dragging the toe. Atrophy of distal leg muscles, decreased leg/foot sensation
Define: Gait Abnormality: SPASTIC Characterized by stiffness of legs, feet, and toes
Define: Gait Abnormality: FESTINATING Gait in which the trunk is flexed , legs are flexed at the knees and hips, but stiff
Define: Gait Abnormality: CIRCUMDUCTING Gait in which the leg is stiff, without flexion at knee and ankle, and with each step is rotated away from the body, then towards it, forming a semicircle.
Define: Hearing Loss, SENSORINEURAL Conduction of sound to oval window is okay, but cochlea, acoustic nerve or brain is dysfunctional. Usually permanent.
Define: Hearing Loss, BONE CONDUCTION Anything that interferes with conduction of sound waves from the outer ear to the oval window
Define: Hyperpathia/Hyperalgesia Increase in pain sense [pg 22 lab]
Define: Hyperreflexia Increase in response of reflexes. Due to a lesion of UMN
Define: Hypertonicity Increased muscle tone (causes include extrapyramidal tract dz, pyramidal dz, sensory irritation) [pg 25 lab]
Define: Hyperventilation Rapid or deep breathing that can occur with anxiety
Define: Hypokinesia Unusually still [pg 25 lab]
Define: Hyperkinesia Hyper-active [pg 25 lab]
Define: Hypomimia Decreased degree of facial expression
Define: Hypophonia Soft speech, often resulting from a lack in coordination in vocal musculature. (often in Parkinson's dz)
Define: Hyporeflexia Decrease in reflex response. Due to a lesion of LMN.
Define: Hypotonicity Decreased muscle tone (causes include cerebellar dz, primary muscular dz, LMN disorders) [pg 25 lab]
Define: Incoordination
Define: Intention Tremor a trembling of a part of the body when attempting a precise movement, associated especially with disease of the cerebellum
Define: Ataxic Tremor Unsteady and clumsy motion of the Limbs or trunk due to a failure of the gross coordination of muscle movements. This includes cerebellar, sensory, and vestibular ataxia
Define: Loss of Consciousness
Define: Loss of Discriminative Sensory FXN
Define: Loss of Proprioception
Define: Memory Loss
Define: Myoclonus Involuntary, lightning-like jerk of an area of the body
Define: Myokimia Rippling movements observed under the skin, usually in the face
Define: Numbness
Define: Nystagmus Fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes
Define: Oscillopsia Visual disturbance in which objects in the visual field appear to oscillate. The severity of the effect may range from a mild blurring to rapid and periodic jumping
Define: Neurogenic Pain Pain due to dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system, in the absence of nociceptor (nerve terminal) stimulation by trauma or disease
Define: Referred Pain Pain felt in a part of the body other than its actual source
Define: Pallanesthesia Loss of Vibration Sense [pg 23 lab]
Define: Papilledema Optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure. The swelling is usually bilateral and can occur over a period of hours to weeks
Define: Paralysis Loss of the ability to move (and sometimes to feel anything) in part or most of the body, typically as a result of illness, poison, or injury
Define: Paresthesia Abnormal sensation, typically tingling or pricking (“pins and needles”), caused chiefly by pressure on or damage to peripheral nerves
Define: Postural Tremor Observed when a limb is maintained against gravity
Define: Resting Tremor Tremor that occurs when the limb is in a position of repose. No voluntary muscle contraction.
Define: Lead-pipe Rigidity Type of increased muscle tone due to an extrapyramidal lesion in which pathologic resistance to passive extension of a joint is constant throughout the range of motion
Define: Cogwheel Rigidity Presents as a jerky resistance to passive movement as muscles tense and relax
Define: Paratonic Rigidity Involuntary variable resistance during passive movement
Define: Spasticity Stiff or rigid muscles. It may also be called unusual tightness or increased muscle tone. Reflexes (for example, a knee-jerk reflex) are stronger or exaggerated
Define: Terminal Tremor/Endpoint Tremor seen as a moving limb nears a target
Define: Tic Simple or complex stereotyped motor behaviors that occur in response to an irresistible urge; partial voluntary control. (Ex. eye blinking, grimacing, vocalizations, jumping)
Define: Tinnitus Ringing in the ears (can be caused by aspirin or Vit. C in high doses)
Define: Vertigo Illusion of motion, sensation of spinning, nausea/vomiting, aggravation of symptoms by head movement
Define: Weakness Lack of strength
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Acoustic Neuroma Numbness in face, deafness, facial palsy, early sign is a problem with speech discrimination. Unremitting.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Alcoholism
Neurological Presentation/DDX: ALS/Lou Gehrig's Weakness, fasciculations, intact cognition/sensation/bowel & bladder fxn. Bulbar dysfunction=problems with swallowing, talking, breathing. UMN & LMN findings.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Alzheimer's Disease
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Bell's Palsy Sudden onset of unilateral facial paralysis. A benign LMN disorder. DDX= Ramsay Hunt syndrome, brainstem stroke, lyme dz, MG gravis, Cerebral tumor, Guillain Barre syndrome
Neurological Presentation/DDX: BPPV Patient experiences vertigo when head is in a particular position, but abates if the head is not moved (usually in 15 seconds)
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome PX and Paraesthesias in palmar surface of thumb, radial 2.5 fingers. Clumsiness w/ precision gripping. Nocturnal Px. DDX= Pronator teres syndrome,
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Cerebral Palsy
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Cervicogenic Vertigo
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Medial forearm px and Paresthesia into 5th and medial aspect of the 4th digit. History of throwing, playing tennis, resting on elbow increase stretch on ulnar nerve. DDX= Guyon's tunnel syndrome, Ulnar Claw Hand, Dupetren's Contracture, Ulnar Neuropathy
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Diabetes Mellitus
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Cervical Disc Herniation
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Thoracic Disc Herniation
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Lumbar Disc Herniation
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Encephalopathy
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Freidreich's Ataxia
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Genitofemoral Nerve Entrapment Results in change in sensation in the upper anterior thigh, Can become entrapped in the psoas major muscle. Supplies the scrotal skin/mons pubis, labia majora.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Cluster Headache Vascular Type HA. Strictly unilateral. Pain is usually severe, lasts 15 to 90 minutes. Autonomic associated symptoms (usually involving the eye)
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Migraine Headache Unilateral, moderate to severe pain, lasts 4-72 hr, throbbing quality, more likely to occur in females. May occur with aura, nausea/vomiting.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Rebound Headache
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Tension Headache Myogenic/cervicogenic Type HA. Occurs bilaterally, pain may be mild to moderate, lasts 30 min- 7 days. Pressing/tightening quality. Occurs more often in females.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Herpes Zoster
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Huntington's Chorea
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Intracranial Mass
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Labyrinthitis Inner ear infection in which hearing is typically affected. DDX= BPPV
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Maigne's Syndrome
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Meniere's Disease Vertigo, hearing loss, nausea/vomiting. Paroxysmal and difficult to treat.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Meningitis Rigidity, fever, increasing headache. Inflammation of the meninges.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Meralgia Paresthetica Numbness or tingling in the antero-lateral thigh. History of prolonged sitting, diabetes, tight-fitting pants, keys in front pockets. DDX= femoral N. lesion, upper lumbar n. entrapment, lumbar NR lesion
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Multiple Sclerosis Recurrent, occasionally progressive inflammatory demyelination of the white matter of brain and spinal cord. Incoordination, balance problems, clumsiness, diplopia, paresthesias, stiffness. DDX= ALS, Lyme dz, ataxia, brainstem tumor
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Muscular Dystrophy
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Myasthenia Gravis
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Myelopathy Pain with movement, Gait disturbance, loss of balance, numbness or tingling, loss of hand dexterity, alteration in handwriting, decrease in bowel/bladder/sexual fxn.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Neurofibromatosis
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Optic Neuritis
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Parkinson's Disease Age related (40-70 y.o.). Slow movements, pill-rolling tremor, mask facies, rigidity/stiffness, constipation, myalgia.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Peroneal Tunnel Syndrome
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Piriformis Syndrome
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Pronator Teres Syndrome The median nerve becomes entrapped by the 2 heads of the pronator teres. Weakness associated w/ abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Cervical Radiculopathy
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Lumbar Radiculopathy
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Stroke
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Supinator Syndrome/Radial Tunnel Syndrome Pain & tingling. Persistent px around lateral epicondyle. Px may be dull and diffuse in the dorsal antebrachium. Nocturnal px common. DDX= Posterior interosseous n. syndrome, Saturday night palsy, Cheiralgia Paresthetica/Wartenberg's dz
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Syringomyelia Fluid-filled cavity in the spinal cord that can occur with spinal cord tumors, following trauma, congenital anomalies of craniocervical jxn DDX= Arachnoiditis, Arnold Chiari malformation, MS)
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Pain, numbness/tingling across bottom of foot, medial ankle/toes, distal branches of the posterior tibial n
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Compression of the lower brachial plexus &/or subclavian arteries. Weakness/atrophy of the C8-T1 innervated muscles, sensory loss.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Thyroid Disorders Hypothyroidism/hyperthyroidism
Neurological Presentation/DDX: TIA
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Tourette's Syndrome Chronic disorder starting in youth that includes vocalizations, organic disorder & does not simply reflect psychological factors, genetic link
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Trigeminal Neuralgia
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Vestibular Neuritis Patients experience severe rotational vertigo associated with nausea/vomiting, horizontal-torsional nystagmus DDX= BPPV, labyrinthitis DDX= Meniere's dz, acoustic neuroma, acute labyrinthitis.
Neurological Presentation/DDX: Whiplash Injuries
Created by: Heirtotheshadows