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Infectious Disease

NWHSU Infectious Disease Final Study Guide

Bird handlers are at risk for what Chlamydia disease? Chlamydia psittaci
What are signs and symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia? Rapid raise in temp, Chest pain, Chills, Productive cough, severe case cyanosis and confusion
What is the most common cause of community-acquired typical pneumonia? Streptococcus phneumonia
What is the m/c cause of atypical pneumonia? Mycoplasma pneumonia
What are the 2 disease caused by Hantaviruses? Which one is more important in US? Pulmonary syndrome (US), Hemorrhagic fever w/renal syndrome
Which 2 fungal diseases are associated with bird droppings? HIstoplasma capsulatum, Cryptoccosis
Which yeast has a large capsule that is virulence factor? Cryptoccosis?
US geographical location of systemica fungal infections for blastomycosis (brown on map), coccidioidomycosis (sand color on map), histoplasmosis (blue), cryptococcus gattii (purple) Blastomycosis (brown) Ohio River Valley, Coccidioidomycosis (sand) SW US, Histoplasmosis (blue) Mississippi River Valley, Cryptococcus Gattii (purple mountain majesty) West Coast US
Pneumocystis is a common cause of pneumonia in what group of people? HIV+
What fungus can cause a non-invasive infection characterized by a "fungus ball" that forms on pulmonary surfaces? Aspergillosis
What age group is most seriously affected by respiratory synctial virus (RSV)? infants
What kind of infectius agents cause most colds? 90% viruses
What is the m/c bacterial causes of pharyngitis (sore throat)? Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS)
What are m/c causes of secondary bacterial infection in a patient with influenza? Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza
What bacteria cause scarlet fever? Streptoccus pyogenes (GABHS)
Why is it important to treat strep throat? Can develop complications like acute glomerulonephritis or rheumatic fever
Define antigenic drift and shift? Drift =slight mutation in a single strain; Shift =Two different strains infect the same cell; re-assort segments of RNA that leads to new strain
Describe course of TB Spread by cough->tubercle forms in lung->when infection is arrested, the tubercle undergoes fibrosis and calcification->in 5-10% of individuals the infection continues destroying more lung tissue and may spread to other organs
IN what cell can Mycobacterium tuberculosis survive and grow? Macrophages
What do MDR-TB and XDR-TB mean? MDR-TB is resistant to Rifampin and Isoniazid (first line drugs), XDR-TB is resistant to first line plus a fluoroquinoline and one second line injectable drug
What 2 bacteria cause about 70% of sinusitis infections? Streptococcus phneumonia and haemophilus influenza
What bacteria cause otitis media? Streptococcus phneumonia and haemophilus influenza
Describe the stages of pertussis? Catarrhal stage: cold symptoms, cough similar to bronchitis; Spasmatic stage:follows catarrhal stage in 10-14 days, explosive or whooping cough, cough severity may break blood vessels in brain, eyes, face
Diptheria has two different pathological problems. Discuss them. Pharyngeal membrane forms, Toxin in blood stream
Describe possible course of Nocardia infection opportunistic infection affects immunosuppressed people through rich soil. The resulting pneumonia is chronic with abscesses, extensive necrosis, and cavity formation.
What bacteria cause most urinary tract infectinos? ecoli
What bacteria cause about 30% of urinary tract infectinos in young women? Staphylococcus saprophyticus
What STDs are characterized by genital ulcers/lesions? How would you differentiate them? Genital herpes (painful, itchy vesicles), Syphilis (painless chancre), Chancroid (soft and painful), Lymphgranuloma venereum (painless and lymph nodes are enlarged)
Describe the stages of Syphilis primary stage-3 wk incubation, hard chncre, painless, highly infectious, spreads through blood and lymph; Secondary - asymptomatic up to 24 wks, rash appears 6-8 weeks after initial chancre, rash/vesicles on skin/ mucours membrane, fever, malaise, headach
How is syphilis diagnosed? nontreponemal test (anti treponemal antibody) VDRL and RPR or fluorescent treponemal antibody
What bacteria cause chancroid? Heamophilis ducreyi
What bacteria are the m/c causes of pelvic inflammatory disease Neisseria gonorrhoaea, Chlamydia trachomatis
When a doctor suspects gonorrhea and requests the lab to do a Gram stain of urethral discharge, what should the lab look for? Gram neg diplocicci in the cytoplasm of a neurophil
What virus causes genital warts and an increased risk of cervical cancer? Human papilloma virus
What protozoa cause genital infectins? Trichomonas vaginalis
Which viruses can cause congenital and newborn infections? Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B, HIV, Herpes Simplex, Rubella, Parovirus 19
What bacteria are most likely to cause meningitis in newborns? Listeria monocytogenes infection
How does one become infected with Toxoplasma? Eating uncooked meat, Contact with infected cat feces
Which bacteria can cause neonatal eye infectinos? Neisseria gonorrhoaea, Chlamydia trachomatis
What are 3 different disease courses that the herpes simplex virus can cause in newborns? Disease localized to skin, eyes, mouth; Encephalitis with or without skin, eye and mouth involvement; Disseminated infection involving multiple organs
How does the rubella virus cause congenital problems? Inhibits mitosis leading to underdeveloped organs and tissues, can lead to miscarraige, still birth or congenital defects
Why is dangerous for a pregnant woman to have Listeria infection? miscarriage or birth defects
What cells in human do the malaria parasites infect? Liver cells (infected cell ruptures and releases meozoites in bloodstream where they infect RBC)
What are classic malaria symptoms? Chills, fever at regular intervals, occurs when RBCs rupture and release the merozoites, as fever drops, sweating and exhaustion occur
What stage of Plasmodium in the mosquito infects humans? What stage of Plasmodium in humas infects mosquitoes? Humans = Cycle A, Mosquitos = Cycle B
Which of the 4 species of malaria is most serious? Plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax, ovale, malariae
Discuss the pathology of malaria infection RBC destruction leading to anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, capillary occlusions with local hemorrhaging and anoxia with the brain most severely affected, intravascular hemolysis in kidney, dormant sporozoites can relapse monts to years later
Compare the fever cycle in Brucellosis with that in Relapsing Fever Undulant: fever (up to 105) raises and declines daily; Relapsing: sudden onset of chills than an abrupt high fever that lasts 3-5 days than a period of 4-10 days w/o fever, repeat
Describe the two types of plague Bubonic: affects lymph nodes, not spread person to person, untreated has 75% fatality, treated 10% fatality; Pneumonic: affects lungs, bacteria in blood spreads to lungs, spread person to person, if untreated 100% fatal
What tissue does the Trichinella larvae infect? Encyst in skeletal muscle
How does man acquire hydatid cyst disease? ingesting eggs, adults are in dogs, many intermediate host for larval stage including humans
What tapeworm causes hydatid cyst disease? Echinococcus granulosus
IN what tissue does Trypanosoma cruzi cause the most serious problems? muscle cells of the myocardium causing fatal arrhythmia
Describe 3 eye diseases caused by Chlamydia trachomatis? Neonatal conjunctivitis, Inclusion Conjunctivitis in adults, Trachoma
What free-living amoeba can cause a potentially serious eye infection? Acanthamoeba
Describe the signs and symptoms of mumps Sweling in the salivary glands (especially parotid), orchitis (testicle swelling), meningitis, pancreatitis, deafness in one ear.
In what cells does the Epstein-Barr virus remain latent? B-lymphocytes
Compare the 2 forms of dengue infection Fever-self limiting infection with high fever, sever pain in the head, back and muscle weakness; Hemorrhagic fever- re-infection causing hyper-immune response leading to bleeding, shock, possible death
Created by: AnatomyMash