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GA2_E4_Embryo

QuestionAnswer
What embryonic structure forms the alae of the nose? 53 lateral nasal swellings
Specifically, what is the cause of a) median cleft lip b) oblique facial cleft 54 a) failure to fuse medial nasal swellings b) failure to fuse lateral nasal and maxillary swellings
In the lateral cleft upper jaw, where is cleft exactly located? 54 Between incisors and cuspids
What specific embryonic processes fail to fuse in cleft of secondary palate? 54 Palatine shelves of maxillary process
Name two components that develop from the intermaxillary segment 54 Philtrum of upper lip, middle part of maxilla, entire primary plate
Name the specific embryonic cartilage which forms the following a) inner part of the greater wing of sphenoid b) body of ethmoid (**Notes say just "ethmoid") c)occipital clivus and tectum d) mastoid part of the temporal bone e) body of sphenoid 69 a) ala temporalis, b) trabeculae cranii, c) occipital sclerotomes, d) periotic capsule, e) hypophyseal cartilages
Name the components formed from the following a) ala temporalis b) periotic capsule 69 a) inner part of greater wing of sphenoid b) petrous and mastoid portions of temporal bone
The developing skull is divided into 4 subdivisions based on location and ossification. Name the subdivision. 69, 70 membranous neurocranium, membranous viscerocranium, cartilagenous neurocranium, cartilagenous viscerocranium
The cranial capacity of the skull increases until age ____, but most of its capacity is achieved by age ___ 70 age 15-16,age 5-7
List the four components of the membranous neurocranium. 70 frontal bone, parietal bone, occipital bone above superior nuchal line, squamous part of temporal bone, outer distal part of greater wing of sphenoid
What does each of the following form in the adult? a) occipital fontanelle b) anterolateral fontanelle c) anterior fontanelle d) posteriolateral fontanelle 70 lambda, pterion, bregma, asterion
List four components of the membranous viscerocranium. 70 maxilla, mandible, nasal, lacrimal
Anomaly of skull in which roof of cranial vault is unclosed 71 cranioschisis
Anomaly of skull in which there is premature closure of one or more sutures 71 Craniostenosis (craniosynostosis) (scapho-/acro-/plagio-cephaly are subsets)
Anomaly of skull in which the coronal and/or lamboidal suture closes prematurely on one side only, skull becomes twisted and asymmetrical in shape. 71 plagiocephaly
Anomaly of skull in which sagittal suture fuse prematurely 71 scaphocephaly (produces long, narrow skull)
T/F Ossification (primary) of a rib takes place from a single loction at the head. 73 F -near angle
T/F Ribs have a single center of chondrification at nine weeks. 73 F -seven weeks
T/F Ossification (primary) of a rib takes place from a single center located near the angle. 73 T
Specifically, what is the embryonic cause of a) cleft sternum b) supernumerary rib 74 a) failure of sternal bands to fuse 73 b)overdevelopment of costal process (in area other than thoracic) leading to an increased number of ribs, occurs most frequently at C7 or L1 levels
T/F The clavicle has the last primary center of ossification to appear in the body. 74 F - last SECONDARY ossification center to appear in body (ossifies first, closes last)
T/F In general, the limbs reach the cartilagenous state at 10 weeks of embryonic development. 74 F -6-7weeks
T/F Secondary centers of ossification form in the epiphyses of long bones between 5 weeks of fetal development and the 20th year (depending on the specific bone). 74 F -BIRTH to 20 years
T/F The sternum develps by endochondral and intramembrous ossification. 74 F -clavicle
T/F The clavicles articulate with the presternal cartilage which later joins the manubrium of the sternum. 74 F -suprasternal cartilages
Describe in detail the anomaly known as "lobster claw". 75 abnormal cleft between the 2nd and 4th metarcarpals and soft tissues, 3rd metacarpals and phalange are usually absent, thumb, and index finger can be fused.
anomaly with no limb development 75 amelia
T/F Concerning the metacarpals and metatarsals of digits 2-5, secondary centers of ossification appear only in proximal epiphyses. 75 F (distal epiphyses) thumb=proximal epiphyses
congenital malformation in which a small bone attaches hands or feet to the trunk. 75 meromelia
Congenital malformation caused when mesenchyme between phalanges fails to breakdown. 75 syndactyly (fusion of one or more fingers or toes)
T/F The primary center of ossification in the scapula forms both the body and most of the acromion 75 T
T/F In the foot, secondary centers of ossification appear only in the proximal epiphyses of the phalanges 75 T
T/F Concerning the metacarpals and metatarsals of digits 2-5, secondary centers of ossification appear only in distal epiphyses. 75 T
T/F The patella is completely cartilaginous at birth 75 T (ossification begins in 4th yr)
Anomaly produced when any area of the neural tube fails to close; nervous tissue remains flattened and exposed to surface. 77 rachischisis
Myelination in the spinal cord begins about ______(1st, 2nd, 4th, or 8th) month of fetal development. Additionally, at birth the cord ends at the _____vertebral level. 78 4th, L3 (L1 or L2 in adult)
Briefly discuss the differentiation of the microglia. 78 from mesenchyme
Component that forms astrocytes and oligodendrocytes but NOT ependymal cells. 78 gliablasts
Besides ganglia, Schwann cells, and the cartilages of the branchial arches: list 4 derivatives of the neural crest. 78 melanocytes, odontoblasts, satelite cells, chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla, small contribution to pia and arachnoid
Besides ganglia and a small contribution to pia and arachnoid list 4 derivatives of the neural crest. 78 odontoblasts (dentin), melanocytes (pigment), satellite cells, chomaffin cells of the adrenal medulla
The bilateral longitudinal groove in the developing spinal cord used to seperate basal and alar plates 78 sulcus limitans
Briefly discuss how dorsal roots of spinal nerves develop. 79 from the neural crest (sensory) [like how DRG is from crest--> ectoderm]
Functional classification (use 3 letters) of the columns in the basal plate of the myelencephalon (medulla oblongata). 79 GSE, SVE, GVE (think MOTOR nuclei)
Brain vesicle which forms only the pons and cerebellum 79 metencephalon
the epithalamus develops from what embryonic components? Include secondary brain vesicle and plate. 80 diencephalon, roof plate
Functional classification (use 3 letters) of the columns in the basal plate of the mesencephalon (midbrain). 80 GSE, GVE
Functional classification (use 3 letters) of the columns in the basal plate of the metencephalon (pons/cerebellum) 80 GSE, SVE, GVE (cont. of 3 motor columns of myelencephalon)
Primordium for the cerebellum. 80 rhombic lips- formed by dorsolateral parts of alar plates
the thalamus and hypothalamus develop from what embryonic components? Include secondary brain vesicle and plate. 81 alar plates of diencephalon
What develops from the corpus striatum? (neuroepithelial layer--> mantle layer (ventral part of wall)--> corpus striatum-->?) 81 future caudate and lenticular nuclei
Anomaly usually due to aqueductal stenosis 81 hydrocephalus
The primordium of the cerebral cortex. 81 pallium (neuroepithelial layer--> mantle layer (dorsal part of wall)--> pallium)
Secondary brain vesical which forms the cerebral hemispheres 81 Telencephalon
Created by: sor32663