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Bonding

General Chemistry - Bonding and Chemical Interactions

TermDefinition
Hydrogen (Octet Rule Exception) Hydrogen is excused from the octet rule because it only has one s-subshell, which can hold a maximum of two electrons.
Lithium (Octet Rule Exception) Attains two valence electrons
Beryllium (Octet Rule Exception) Attains four valence electrons
Boron (Octet Rule Exception) Attains six valence electrons.
Period 3 (Octet Rule Exception) All of the elements in period 3 and greater have extra storage space, so they can hold more than eight electrons if necessary.
Ionic bonding One or more electrons from an atom with lower ionization energy, typically a metal, are transferred to an atom with greater electron affinity, typically a nonmetal. They have very high boiling points and melting points. Think Polarity!!
Covalent bonding An electron pair is shared between the two atoms, typically two nonmetals, which have relatively similar values of electronegativity.
Bond length As the number of shared electrons increases, the two atoms are pulled closer together. Triple bond < Double bond < Single bond.
Bond energy The greater the number of pairs of electrons shared, the more energy required to "break" the bonds. Triple bond > Double bond > Single bond
What is the shape of a molecule with 2 regions of electron density? Linear
What is the shape of a molecule with 3 regions of electron density? Trigonal Planar
What is the shape of a molecule with 4 regions of electron density? Tetrahedral
What is the shape of a molecule with 5 regions of electron density? Trigonal Bipyramidal
What is the shape of a molecule with 6 regions of electron density? Octahedral
Dispersion/London Forces Resulting from an induced dipole that changes and shift moment by moment, this force is the weakest of all intermolecular interactions
Dipole-Dipole Interactions Resulting from an induced dipole that changes and shift moment by moment, this force is roughly the same as dispersion forces in that it is the interaction between opposite partial charges, they differ in degree of strength. D-D interactions are stronger.
Hydrogen bonding Hydrogen bonds are not actually bonds. There is no sharing or transferring of electrons between two atoms. When H is bound to F, O, N the hydrogen atom essentially acts a naked proton. It is the strongest intermolecular force.
Created by: chri14