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Praxis II 5623

PLT Miscellaneous Study Topics

What are the characteristics of the cognitive domain of human development? the process of growth and change in intellectual/mental abilities such as thinking, reasoning and understanding; the acquisition and consolidation of knowledge; cause and affect, spatial relationships, problem solving, imitation, memory number sense, etc.
What are the characteristics of the physical domain of human development? the changes in size, shape, and physical maturity of the body, including physical abilities and coordination; rolling over, sitting up, crawling and waking are signs of healthy physical development
What are the characteristics of the social domain of human development? Development of self-concept, self-control, cooperation, & social relationships; identify & understand one’s feelings, read & comprehend emotional states in others, manage strong emotions, regulate one’s behavior, develop empathy, establish relationships.
What are the characteristics of the moral domain of human development? Progress from a naive understanding of morality based on behavior & outcomes to a more advanced understanding based on intentions. Conscience decisions & values, cultural influences, empathy, altruism, justice, others’ welfare, & rights.
What is the relationship between learning theory and human development? A sociocultural relationship; Children's minds develop as a result of constant interactions with the social world--where people do things with and for each other; learning from each other and using previous human experiences for development.
How does human development impact the instructional process? by a focus on the nature and needs of the individual; there is a fixed order to developmental changes; learning occurs as people pass through common developmental stages; physical, intellectual, emotional, cultural, social growth, & achievement
How does learning theory impact the instructional process? Learning theories support the construction of knowledge through understanding past learning experiences. Understanding the historical effects and development of theories is imperative to understanding where we have been & where we are going in education.
What are the 2 main external variables that affect how students learn and perform? Culture and Socioeconomic status
What are the 6 pre-existing individually centered variables that affect how a student learns and performs? Gender, Prior knowledge and experience, cognitive development, learning style, maturity, and language
What are the 2 most influential variables that affect how a student learns and performs? Motivation & self-confidence/self-esteem
How does the process of English language acquisition affect the educational experience of English language learners? Affecting factors of language acquisition related to students' learning & academic growth include: self-concept, personality, life experience, family situation, culture, literacy, motivation, anxiety, instruction, teachers, other students, & community.
How can a teacher establish an effective system of accurate record maintenance? Records should provide evidence of student growth, Show weakness/improvement patterns, help to make informed decisions about progress, aid discussions about progress with students/parents, aid student referrals for special services, inform your teaching.
What are 4 main strategies for helping students develop self-motivation skills? Assigning valuable tasks, providing frequent positive feedback, including students in instructional decisions, de-emphasizing grades
What is the role of district standards and frameworks in instructional planning? District standards provide critical infrastructure support, leadership and prioritization, underscored by resource allocation
What is the role of state standards and frameworks in instructional planning? Serve to orient and help teachers understand the state agency's general expectations for students. The purpose is not to articulate specific skills to be taught in one lesson, but to outline an overarching concept the encompasses several skills.
What is the role of federal standards and frameworks in instructional planning? Governmental and law agencies impose federal standards by defining a curriculums content, administering tests to see if students know the content, and applying incentives or sanctions accordingly.
What are the resources for accessing district, state, and federal standards and frameworks? Educational Accreditation agencies such as: Opportunity to Learn resource index, the Cato Institute, the pioneer institute, the Heartland Institute, etc.
How do scope and sequence affect instructional planning? Organizes strategies by grade level and indicates which may be introduced or expanded at each grade; shows how students strategies develop through the grades; bigger picture" for what instruction will look like.
How can a teacher develop observable and measurable instructional objectives in the cognitive domain? Consider Blooms Taxonomy and the six levels of the cognitive domain which include: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Use action verbs in objectives that focus on recall, interpretation, and problem solving.
How can a teacher develop observable and measurable instructional objectives in the affective domain? Use action verbs in objectives that focus on reception, response, value, organization, and characterization by value.
How can a teacher develop observable and measurable instructional objectives in the psychomotor domain? Use action verbs in objectives that focus on imitation, manipulation, precision, articulation, naturalization
What are some methods of identifying resources for locating, adapting, and creating enrichment and remediation activities? SPED teachers, gifted teachers, journals, textbooks, other teachers, workshops, conferences
What do scores and testing data indicate about a student's performance? measure collective student performance or school performance over a period of time.
When is remediation appropriate? Appropriate when you see the student is not grasping the concept no matter what the situation (i.e exceptionalities, culture, reading difficulties, self esteem, etc.) and require extra attention.
When is enrichment appropriate? Appropriate when the students easily grasp the concept and students are exposed to a greater understanding by engaging in different activities.
What should a teacher consider when planning to incorporate various resources into a lesson design? -Computers, Internet and other electronic sources -Library collection (books, magazines, pamphlets, reference works) -Videos, DVDs -Artifacts, models, manipulatives -Guest speakers and community members
What are the basic concepts of interdisciplinary instruction? involves a conscious effort to apply knowledge, principles, & value to more than one academic discipline simultaneously. The disciplines may be related through a central theme, issue, problem, process, or experience. The organized in thematic units.
What are the components of interdisciplinary units? -Collaborating (using other teachers to help with your unit)- -generating applicable topics -developing an integrative framework -planning instruction for each discipline -designing integrative assessment
What roles might special education teachers play in collaborative activities? Teachers who help students with learning differences
What roles might library media specialists play in collaborative activities? Provide individual or group instruction to students and teachers who are experts in locating resources
What roles might gifted teachers play in collaborative activities? Expertise in understanding how students with exceptional academic knowledge and skills think, provide support to individuals and serve as resource to classroom teachers
What roles might IEP team members play in collaborative activities? Variety of professionals, such as teachers, social workers, school psychologists, behavioral specialist, reading specialist, speech/lang specialist, occupational therapist, nurses, admin. and parents
What roles might Para educators play in collaborative activities? Educational support who typically assist individuals, small groups or classroom teachers. Also known as teacher assistants
What are the 6 strategies for promoting students' development of self-regulatory skills? Setting goals, Managing time, organizing information, monitoring progress, reflecting on outcomes, establishing a productive work environment
What is heterogenous grouping? different ages and academic levels (schoolhouse)
What is homogenous grouping? same or similar age, academic level of knowledge
What is Short-term memory? Temporary storage of information in memory
What is long-term memory? Takes repetition for information to be put here
What implication for instructional planning and student learning are caused by the characteristics of short term and long term memory? A student's memory may cause them to go over the material in different ways. (direct, independent, guided practice, test)
What do scores and testing data indicate about a student's ability? ability to recall educational standards given in a specific format under a specific amount of time
What is a teachable moment and what are 2 examples? Moments that go off of the lesson plan to teach morals or values Lesson 9/11, don't stereotype, etc.
What are 8 components of effective questioning? allowing think/wait time, helping students articulate ideas, respecting student answers, handling incorrect answers, encouraging participation, establishing a non-critical classroom, promoting active listening, varying the types of questions.
What are some uses of questioning? developing interest and motivation, evaluating preparation, reviewing lessons, helping students set realistic expectations, engaging discussion, determining prior knowledge, preparing for lesson, guiding thinking
What are some more uses of questioning? developing critical thinking skills, checking for comprehension, summarizing information, stimulating students to pursue knowledge on their own.
What are 7 methods of encouraging students' higher levels of thinking? Reflection, challenging assumptions, finding relationships, determining relevancy and validity of information, designing alternate solutions, drawing conclusions, transferring knowledge
How can culture affect communication? cognitive constraints or the frames of reference or world views that provide a backdrop; behavior constraints or each culture's rules about proper behavior (eye contact); emotional constraints as cultures regulate the display of emotion differently
How can gender affect communication? Gender therefore focuses on the social construct regarding the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex. The male and female roles are distinct identities and they shape behavior and communication
What are 6 effective listening strategies? attending to the speaker, restating key points, asking questions, interpreting information, providing supportive feedback, being respectful
How can a teacher encourage divergent thinking on a particular topic? Pattern breaking, Inquiry-based,self-paced ideation, Imaginative observation, Visualization, Collective group ideation, problems with infinite number of solutions, Evaluation problems, Twists to well-known problems, simple problems w/ unexpected solutions
What are the 3 types of standardized tests? Achievement, aptitude, ability
What is the purpose of standardized achievement tests? designed to measure student's knowledge or proficiency in something already learned or taught; examples SAT, ACT,MAT
What is the purpose of standardized aptitude tests? standardized (norm-referenced) tests designed to measure student's ability to develop or acquire skills and knowledge; TCAP, EOC, Gateway
What is the purpose of standardized ability tests? standardized test used to evaluate individual's performance in specific area; cognitive or psychomotor
What is an educational context for holistic scoring? A single score is given to represent the overall quality of the essay across all dimensions; typically used for constructed response (essays, journals, short answer);uses general descriptions of criteria for success of each question.
What is an educational context for analytical scoring? Separate scores given for specific aspects of the essay like organization, factual accuracy, & spelling; used to assess constructed-response test questions (essays, short-answer) & has detailed criteria descriptions; used when teacher is new to assessment
What do scores and testing data indicate about a student's aptitude? data measures a student's overall performance across a broad range of mental capabilities; look at a wider range of experiences; provide a profile of strengths and weaknesses.
What are 10 professional development resources that can facilitate the educational process? Professional literature, professional associations, workshops, conferences, learning communities, graduate courses, independent research, internships, mentors, study groups
What are the purposes of reflective practice? consciously analyze your decision making and draw on theory and relate it to what you do in practice; refocuses one's thinking on existing knowledge and helps to generate new ideas, and know what to modify
What are 6 activities that support selective practice? Reflective journals, self and peer assessment, incident analysis, portfolio, peer observation, critical friend
What are 5 elements of successful collaboration? developing an action plan, identifying the stakeholders, identifying the purpose of the collaboration, supporting effective communication, seeking support
What are the implications of major legislation relating to students' and teachers' privacy and confidentiality? Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) - (Privacy/confidentiality) guardians have right to access students records and educators can't release records without parental permission.
What are the implications of major legislation relating to students' and teachers' First Amendment issues? Massachusetts Laws of Education 1642- parents were responsible for instilling religious principles; 1647 schooling became more of a social responsibility and if you live in a town with 50 families or more you have to hire a school master
What are the implications of major legislation relating to students' and teachers' intellectual freedom? the right to freedom and expression of thought; guardians feel an assigned reading book or film is not appropriate for their children which may result in banning a book or censorship of information
What are the implications of major legislation relating to students' and teachers' due process? Proceedings will be fair; if disciplined, guardians have the right to discuss the decisions and raise concerns to authority if their rights violated; Teachers have right to hearing if school personnel or school board is unfair in making decisions.
What are the implications of major legislation relating to students' and teachers' liability? Issues based on claims of negligence, teachers fault.
What are the implications of major legislation relating to teachers' licensing and tenure? -Must complete all requirements set by state dept of education to obtain license. -Tenure is recognitions of faculty competence and achieving all goals of professional responsibility.
What are the implications of major legislation relating to students' and teachers' copyright ? -Library has information. -Okay to show video or rented video for education purposes. -Copies cannot be made of material to avoid purchasing other copyrighted material.
What are 3 major present and ongoing debates in the field of education? Effectiveness of standardized testing, Literacy decline, & religion in schools
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