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Praxis II 5543

Miscellaneous Study Topics

QuestionAnswer
A Speech-language impairment may impact communication by hindering the student's ability to - understand and express information - relate to others, including teachers and peers - express needs, abilities and interests - learn appropriate behavior and social skills - participate in group activities
A Speech-language impairment may impact learning by hindering the student's ability to - acquire adequate literacy and numeracy skills - develop a positive self-concept - problem solve - acquire and demonstrate knowledge in key learning area
What is the correlation between disability, employment, and gender. Disabled people as a group are (42%) less likely to have a job than males with otherwise similar characteristics. Women are even less likely to maintain a job. Mothers with children were even (69%) less likely. Severity of disability is also a factor.
Women with disabilities (more so than men) possess what key component seemingly responsible for defining and strengthening their gender identity? Reflexivity - a unique, feminine sensitivity to the complex, everyday interactions between individuals and their environment. These "key elastic relationships (wife,parent,mother) give women vital knowledge about their personality, competence, & function
How does culture affect disability? Culture denotes identifiable pattens of behavior from people in response to phenomena and the meanings they attach to these encounters. Disability is formed by the idea of the 'person' in a culture. Evaluations of the 'person' focus on others, not self.
How do small scale cultures perceive the concept of disability? Small scale cultures base the identity of 'the person' on the family clan not how the person looks. They are unique individuals not persons with handicaps. Natural integration of the disabled into family life and community activities is the norm.
How do large scale cultures perceive the concept of disability? Large scale cultures understand disabled thru Legislation that determines the existence and recognition by defining what it means to be disabled, establishing criteria, determining classification, & setting available services. They become a marked group.
What are the five main principles of teaching students with disabilities that teachers should focus upon when writing lesson plans? Engagement, Value/Safety, Connections (with constructs), Conceptual frameworks of information, & Metacognition.
How can a teacher build and deliver conceptual frameworks of information within lesson plans? Teachers should use diverse and engaging methods of relaying information so that the students can organize the knowledge in ways that will help with retrieval and application. Illustrations are a good example.
How can teachers influence students towards metacognitive practices? Encourage students to verbalize their thinking. This allows the teacher to monitor their understanding, internal dialog, and conversation. These practices allow students to activate background knowledge, self explain, and not failures in comprehension.
What are 3 suggestions teachers can use to arrange the physical layout of a classroom in order to facilitate inclusion? 1. Desks in groups 2. Classroom centers with materials and manipulatives the encourage active learning 3. A universal Meeting spot where students can come together and develop social skills. The space must be big enough for All students.
What are 2 suggestions teachers can use to enhance the classroom environment in order to facilitate student comfort and inclusion? 1. Class decor needs to be appropriate and done in a way that does not create distraction and/or sensory overload. 2. Safety should be apparent throughout the classroom by ensuring adequate space for all students to move and access necessary items.
What are 3 activities/practices teachers can use to support an inclusive and comfortable environment? 1. Create special traditions for your class. 2. Conduct Classroom Meetings 3. Use children's literature
What are 2 social skills that teachers can model in order to create an inclusive classroom? 1. Self-Advocacy and Self-Determination skills 2. Reflective or Active Listening
What is the focus of supportive Transition services? The improvement of academic and functional achievement of the student with the disability. In addition to the facilitation of the child's movement from school to post school activities, postsecondary education, employment, and independent living.
What does a successful transition service offers to a student when they exit the secondary program? A summary of performance which includes academic achievement , functional performance, necessary supports, & the next steps
What are 2 reflective abilities that students should attain in order to transition successfully? 1. Understand their disability and personal strengths and weaknesses 2. Accept responsibility for their own success and advocate foe necessary academic adjustments
What are 2 management skills that students should attain in order to facilitate transition? 1. Time management skills 2. Computer skills
What are the 5 responsibilities of a special education teacher regarding student learning and assessment? 1. Pre and Post testing using group standardized tests 2. Fostering life skills & socialization 3 Inclusive, core-based, and diverse curriculum development 4. Monitoring and recording progress IEP manager 5. Collaboration
What are the 2 responsibilities of a special education teacher regarding communication with the students' parents? 1. Conduction of any initial evaluations requested by the parent 2. Effective communication via parent conferences
What are the 2 responsibilities and 2 roles of a special education teacher regarding the formation and modification of the students' IEPs? 1. Monitoring the IEP 2. Modifying the IEP through accommodations 1. Involvement in the annual review of the child's IEP help by the IEP committee; plan next year's IEP 2. Involvement in the triennial evaluation process of the child's IEP
What are the two most powerful contexts that contribute to positive developmental outcomes for children with disabilities? Family and School
What approach to transition planning and services is the most successful regarding the importance of the family's role and involvement? A (family) Systems approach is concerned with all of the resources and constraints of the family and focuses on determining how the subsequent changes in the youth's life will affect the family as a whole and not just "what is the matter' with the child.
What are the risk conditions that children with disabilities may encounter throughout home life? those "negative or potentially negative conditions that impede or threaten normal development."
What are the protective factors that children with disabilities may encounter throughout home life? Critical incidents that modulate, buffer, and mediate potentially harmful biological, developmental, and/or social events over time.
What are the 4 risk and protective factors that relate specifically to the components of the family systems framework? 1. economic status (family function, financial stress, and survival) 2. Family and child demographics (developmental, medical, and social histories) 3. Parenting styles (routines, rules, punishments) 4. Family climate (communication/interaction)
What are the responsibilities and roles of the family regarding successful transition planning? 1. Foster self-determination skills by facilitating problem solving skills, decision making, self-advocacy, goal setting 2. Collaborate with professionals, and with student 3. Access to the curriculum and Awareness/pursuit of available services
What is Assistive technology? is any device, piece of equipment or system that helps bypass, work around or compensate for an individual's specific learning deficits. it allows them to capitalize on their strengths and bypass areas of difficulty.
What are some examples of assistive technology? Audio books, talking calculators, Spell check programs, etc.
What are the possible developmental cognitive differences that children with disabilities may experience? Functional cognitive disabilities may involve difficulties or deficits involving problem-solving, attention, memory, math comprehension, visual comprehension, reading, linguistic, and verbal comprehension.
What are the possible developmental behavioral/emotional differences that children with disabilities may experience? inability to learn that cannot be explained by other factors; inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships; Inappropriate behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; general depression; physical reaction to anxiety.
What are the possible developmental language differences that children with disabilities may experience? A child with a functional speech disorder has difficulty learning to make a specific speech sound; referred to as "articulation disorders;" likely to have problems in writing, reading, and with interaction with other children.
What are the possible developmental physical/sensory differences that children with disabilities may experience? A sensory disability refers to a disability of the senses (e.g. sight, hearing, Sensory Integration Dysfunction); physical problems with the structure or functioning of the body, resulting in Neuromotor impairments and Muscular/skeletal conditions
What are the possible developmental social differences that children with disabilities may experience? The social model of disability implies that attempts to change, "fix" or "cure" individuals & can be discriminatory and prejudiced. This attitude, which stems from a subjective value system, can harm the self-esteem and social inclusion of the disabled.
What are Co-occuring disabilities and the secondary characteristics that are affiliated with them? These individuals have co-occurring intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD); susceptibility to mental illness is increased by aggravated by biochemical irregularities and social factors; exclusion from social activities.
What are the 5 characteristics of a successful lesson plan? 1. Aligned with standards 2. culturally responsive 3. curriculum and context based 4. developmentally appropriate 5. matches student needs
What are the 3 opening elements 1. Goals/objectives 2. Prerequisites 3. Materials/procedures
What are the 3 collaborative elements of a lesson plan that the teacher must introduce to the students? 1. Motivation 2. Guided Practice 3. Teacher input
What are the 2 (student) product oriented elements of a successful lesson plan? 1. Independent practice of student 2. Summarizing
What are the 2 closing elements of a successful lesson plan? 1. Assessment 2. Reflextion
What are the 6 strategies focused toward setting measurable and appropriate learning objectives? 1. individualizing 2. recognizing 3. writing 4. implementing 5. revising 6. monitoring
What are the factors that a teacher must consider when grouping students (with disabilities) for a particular lesson? differing individual needs; communication; self-advocacy; monitoring
What are some examples of outside support services that schools can use to create a supportive learning environment?
What are the main factors that can influence/alter the interpretation of assessment results? With disabilities, assessment is viewed in terms of screening/diagnosis and shaped by the presumption that problems stem from and belong to targeted individuals; Assessment isn't restricted to problems; strengths can be identified as well.
What agencies can aid in preparing students with disabilities for transition? National Dissemination Center; NCSET; DARS; TSI
What are the roles and responsibilities of a physical therapist in regards to students with disabilities? examine individuals & develop treatment plan using techniques to promote ability to move, reduce pain, restore function, & prevent disability; work to prevent mobility loss by developing fitness/wellness programs for healthy/active lifestyles.
What are the roles and responsibilities of an occupational therapist in regards to students with disabilities? educate/confer with the stakeholders;Evaluate/provide intervention; develop/improve/restore skills of daily living; Identify/facilitate engagement in meaningful occupation; developing components of performance.
What are the roles and responsibilities of a general educator in regards to students with disabilities? believes that the student can succeed; accepting responsibility for the learning outcomes; keeping parents informed; collaborate with stakeholders; access to accommodations, modifications, and other services; appropriate resources to monitor progress.
What are the roles and responsibilities of an instructional assistant or paraprofessional in regards to students with disabilities? modify/adapt instruction; work with individuals or small groups of students to reinforce learning of material or skills from teacher; provide one-on-one assistance; guide independent study, enrichment/remedial work; assist self-care tasks; record keeping.
What are some effective one-way communication tools that a teacher can use with stakeholders? inform parents about student progress through variety of sources: introductory letter at the beginning of the school year, classroom or school newsletters, report cards, communication books, radio announcements, school Web sites, and so on.
How might personal cultural biases affect you as a teacher? cultural bias in teaching occurs when classroom instruction, learning activities, materials, and lessons largely reflect the contributions and/or cultural values and perspectives of the majority race or culture
What are the characteristics of successful inclusion programs? Attitude; universal access to curriculum; collaboration; leadership; respect; learning is learning; teaching is teaching; achievement; determination; accepting classroom environment
How can routines and consistently practiced procedures organize and structure the learning environment for students with disabilities? orderly classroom routines help children understand what is expected each day; where to find the resources they need, and the expectations for behavior in the hall and the classroom.
What are the main elements of evidence-based assessment? Framing the Clinical Question Finding the Evidence Assessing the Evidence Making the Clinical Decision
What are the strengths of evidence-based assessment? finding better procedures, stopping negative procedures, learning from other people’s mistakes, providing a basis for clinical judgment, legal protection, best utilization of resources and ultimately best clinical practice
What are the weaknesses of evidence-based assessment? time and money, individual needs and emotional neglect; insurance involvement; limitations for creative solutions.
What are some effective two-way communication tools that a teacher can use with stakeholders? Two-way communication via telephone calls, home visits, parent teacher conferences, open houses and other school-based or community activities
what can be done to counteract cultural bias in the classroom? practice culturally responsive teaching by establishing and maintaining classroom environments in which the emotional, social, cognitive and cultural needs of all students are met; respond appropriately to diverse learning experiences of all students.
Created by: 558616306