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Praxis II Theorists

Theorists & What they are known for + Extra Things to Study

Rosenblatt aesthetic or efferent stance based on the reader's purpose; interaction of reader and text; dialogue engenders further thinking; literature circles
Vygotsky scaffolding; zone of proximal development; instruction proceeds just ahead of development; guided reading; gradual release of responsibility model
Poaget schema and schemata; accommodation and assimilation; concrete experiences in the classroom; use of manipulatives
Camborn conditions of learning; mistakes are essential for learning to occur; time and opportunity to use and practice new learning in realistic ways; content area reading
Halliday seven functions of language; functional grammar; language is used to help child come to terms with environment; language is used to satisfy physical, emotional, and social needs
Bandura Observational Learning or Modeling; observing, retaining, and replicating novel behavior executed by others; Also known for the Bobo Doll Experiment
Skinner Operant Conditioning; Reinforced behaviors tend to be repeated and strengthened and those behaviors that are not reinforced are weakened; Also known for behaviorism
Gilligan stages of ethical care relating to women; developed alternative theory of moral development in women
Hidalgo levels of culture
Erikson social emotional domain; Erikson Psychosocial Theory
Kohlberg Known for the 6 Stages of Moral Development
Bruner constructivist approach; students begin with complex problems to solve and then discover required basic skills; scaffolding
Mager associated with objectives he defines an objective as being an intent that a statement communications to the reader
Bloom Known for the 6 Levels of Comprehension in his Taxonomy; knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation levels
Maslow known for his hierarchy of needs; he believed that basic need smust be met for a child to grow and develop
Dewey progressive education; children came to school to obtain guided experiences, application, not just instruction; inquiry learning
Thorndike anxiety related to school; focused on intrinsic & extrinsic motivation
Pavlov classical conditioning; experiment with dogs and bell
Canter assertive discipline; teachers have the right to establish rules, require student compliance, and expect parent and administrative support
Dreikurs logical consequences
Rogers inquiry learning; group projects, self-assessments, guide not direct
Howard Gardner's 8 Multiple Intelligences Visual/Spatial, Bodily/Kinesthetic, Musical/Rhythmic, Logical/Mathematical, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Naturalist, Linguistic
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Love & Belongingness 4. Self-Esteem 5. Self-Actualization
Observation a tool used to gather information that can help teachers make sense of educational situations, gauge the effectiveness of educational practices, and plan for improvement.
Anecdotal Notes an informal written record for tracking a child’s social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development.
Portfolio Assessment systematic collection of materials selected to demonstrate a person’s level of knowledge, skill, or ability in a particular area
Rubric explicit set of criteria used for assessing a particular type of work or performance that usually includes potential levels of achievement for each criterion.
Percentile Rank indicates the percent of students in a particular group that received lower raw scores on a test than the student did.
Grade-Equivalent Score a score that compares the raw score attained on a test by the individual student to the raw score attained by the average student in the norm group for the particular test and then reports the grade and month level of that norm group comparison.
Expository Teaching students are presented with subject matter organized by the teacher
Discovery Learning students are allowed to explore material on their own and arrive at conclusions
Pragmatic Style of Teaching students are active participants in learning; structure
Constructivist students learn from doing
Behaviorist worksheets and textbooks; passive and not active learning
Webb's Depth of Knowledge Level 1 Recall - state, retell, name, match, report
Webb's Depth of Knowledge Level 2 Skill/Concept - graph, classify, infer, show
Webb's Depth of Knowledge Level 3 Strategic Thinking - assess, compare, formulate
Webb's Depth of Knowledge Level 4 Extended Thinking - critique, analyze, connect
Theorists Related to Social Development Erikson, Vygotsky, Bandura
Theorists Related to Emotional Development Maslow
Theorists Related to Moral Development Kohlberg, Gilligan
Theorists Related to Moral Development Piaget, Bruner, Ausubel
Ausubel advance organizers; bridge between new concepts
4mat Curriculum Development Model 1. propose why questions to students 2. engage in what activities 3. encourage to ask how 4. answering the if questions 5. back to why
Bloom's Taxonomy Knowledge - list, recall; comprehension - compare, describe; application - practice, use; analysis - examine, analyze; synthesis - arrange, create; evaluation - score, argue
5 E's Model engage explore explain elaborate evaluate
Creative Thinking teams of students work together to solve assigned problems using text provided by the teacher
invention an open-ended problem-solving task; is the process of creating something to fill a need
higher-order thinking thinking that goes beyond recall of basic facts
memorization and recall actively organizing and working with concepts or terminology to improve incorporating those concepts into memory
Created by: bschult3
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