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MCAT Biology #5

Metabolism

TermDefinition
Kinase an enzyme that involves the transfer of a terminal phosphate group from ATP to another molecule
Hexokinase enzyme that phosphorylates glucose into glucose 6-phosphate
Phosphoglucose isomerase enzyme that isomerizes glucose 6-phosphate into fructose 6-phosphate
Phosphofructokinase enzyme that phosphorylates fructose 6-phosphate into fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
Aldolase enzyme that catalyzes the reverse aldol condensation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into DHAP and G-3P
DHAP stands for dihydroxyacetonephosphate
G-3P stands for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Triose phosphate enzyme that isomerizes DHAP into G-3P
Glyceraldehyde 3-dehydrogenase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into 1,3-DPG
1,3-DPG stands for 1,3-diphosphoglyceraldehyde
Mixed anhydride linkage a linkage involving an oxygen that is alpha to two keto functional groups
Phsophoglycerate kinase enzyme that dephosphorylates 1,3-BPG into 3-PG
3-PG stands for 3-phosphoglycerate
Phosphoglyceromutase enzyme that isomerizes 3-PG into 2-PG
2-PG stands for 2-phosphoglycerate
2,3-BPG stands for 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate
2,3-BPG function a molecule that binds in the middle of deoxy-hemoglobin and stabilizes, causing blood to release more oxygen
Enolase enzyme that dehydrates 2-PG into PEP
PEP stands for phosphoenolpyruvate
Pyruvate kinase enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from PEP to ADP and releases pyruvate and ATP
Net products of glycolysis 2 net ATP and 2 NADH
Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme that reduces pyruvate into lactate using NADH
Pyruvate decarboxylase enzyme that decarboxylates pyruvate into acetaldehyde
Alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme that reduces acetaldehyde into ethanol using NADH
Three reactions in glycolysis that are essentially reversible rnx catalyzed by hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase
Components of sucrose glucose and fructose
Components of maltose glucose and glucose
Components of lactose glucose and galactose
Where does Krebs cycle occur? inside mitochondria
Where does glycolysis occur? In the cell’s cytosol
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex a complex of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate into acetyl CoA with the CoA factor
When is FAD the oxidizing agent in metabolism? when dealing with a C-C bond
When is NAD the oxidizing agent in metabolism? when dealing with a C-O bond
Thioester bond an ester involving a carbonyl and a sulfur atom
Citrate synthetase enzyme that catalyzes the combining of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to form citrate
Aconitase enzyme that converts citrate into cis-aconitate AND cis-aconitate into isocitrate
Isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme that oxidizes isocitrate into alpha-ketoglutarate via NAD
Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex enzyme complex that catalizes an oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate into succinyl-CoA with a CoA factor
Succinyl CoA synthetase converts succinyl-CoA into succinate and generates one GTP atom
Succinate dehydrogenase enzyme that oxidizes succinate into fumarate via FAD
Fumarase enzyme that hydrates fumarate into malate
Malate dehydrogenase enzyme that oxidizes malate into oxaloacetate via NAD
Net products of Krebs cycle 2 ATP, 8 NADH, 2 FADH2
NADH-Q reductase AKA complex I
Succinate-Q reductase AKA Complex II
Cytochrome reductase AKA complex III
Cytochrome oxidase AKA complex IV
Coenzyme Q AKA ubiquinone
Oxidized form of Coenzyme Q ubiquinone
Reduced form of Coenzyme Q ubiquinol
Free-radical intermediate version of Coenzyme Q semiquinone
Cytochrome electron transporting proteins that contain a heme prosthetic group with an iron atom that alternates between oxidized and reduced states
2,4-DNP is short for 2,4-dinitrophenol
2,4-DNP function slightly acidic molecule that is capable of crossing the inner mitochondrial membrane that can dissociate to essentially transport protons back into the matrix, weakening the gradient
Glycerol phosphate shuttle of NADH yield 2 ATP
Malate-aspartate shuttle of NADH yield 3 ATP
Antimycin A function a toxic antibiotic that blocks electorn flow between cytochromes b and c
Rotenone function a toxic plant poison that inhibits electron transport within complex I
Ascorbate function reduces cytochrome c and allows for electron flow from cytochrome c to oxygen
Cyanide function inhibits complex IV
Azide function inhibits complex IV
Carbon monoxide function inhibits complex IV
Pentose phosphate pathway function to generate reducing power in the form of NADPH and five carbon sugars such as ribose 5-phosphate
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme that oxidizes the anomeric carbon on glucose 6-phosphate into a keto group, to form 6-phosphoglucono-d-lactone
Lactone AKA cyclic ester
Lactonase enzyme that hydrolyzes 6-Phosphoglucono-d-lactone into 6-phosphogluconate
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase enzyme that catalyzes a oxidative decarboxylation of 6-phosphogluconate into ribulose 5-phosphate via NADP+
Phosphopentose isomerase isomerizes ribulose 5-phosphate into ribose 5-phosphate
NADP function coenzyme involved in anabolic reactions
Transketolase enzyme that catalyze the synthesis of xylulose-5-phosphate and erythrose 4-phosphate from G3P and fructose 6-phosphate
Phosphopentose epimerase enzyme that converts xylulose-5-phosphate into ribulose 5-phosphate
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme that catalyze the conversion of superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen
Catalase enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide into water
Cori cycle the series of reactions involving glycolysis turning glucose into pyruvate, fermentation, turning pyruvate into lactate, and the liver turning lactate back into pyruvate and then into glucose again
Pyruvate carboxylate enzyme that catalyzes the reaction from pyruvate back to PEP in gluconeogenesis
Anaplerotic reaction reaction to fill up a need of a molecule
Futile cycle a cycle of reactions in which we would run out of energy if we kept running the cycle
Fructose 1,6-diphosphate phosphatase enzyme that catalyzes the reaction from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate
Glucose 6-phosphate phosphatase enzyme that catalyzes the reaction from glucose 6-phosphate to glucose
Three reactions that gluconeogenesis bypasses the reactions involving the enzymes pyruvate carboxylate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate phosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphate phosphatase
Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glycerol 3-phosphate into DHAP
Glycerol kinase enzyme that phosphorylates glycerol
Acyl CoA synthetase enzyme that activates fatty acids via 2 ATP-equivalent energy hydrolysis
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme that that oxidizes a fatty acid-CoA molecule into an enoyl-CoA molecule via FAD
Enoyl-CoA hydratase enzyme that hydrates enoyl-CoA into L-Hydroxyacyl-CoA
L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-Hydroxyacyl-CoA into Ketoacyl-CoA
Beta-ketothiolase enzyme that catalyzes the thiolytic cleavage of ketoacyl-CoA into a shorter fatty acid-CoA and Acetyl-CoA
Transaminase transfers the amino group of an amino acid to alpha-ketoglutarate to form an alpha keto acid and glutamate
Glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme that that catalizes the oxidative deamination of glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia via NAD or NADP
Glucogenic amino acids amino acids that will be degraded to pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, fumarate, and oxaloacetate.
Ketogenic amino acids amino acids that will eventually give rise to ketone bodies
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase enzyme that synthesizes carbamoyl phosphate from carbon dioxide, ammonia and water
Carbamoyl transcarbamoylase enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate to ornithine to produce citrulline
Created by: ruiyuwu1998