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MCAT Biology #4

GI Tract and Kidneys

Proteases enzymes that can hydrolyze proteins to their constituent amino acid residues
Cellulase enzyme that can hydrolyze cellulose
Gastrointestinal tract components salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and certain aspects of the liver and pancreas
Lipase enzymes that hydrolyze fats
Peristalsis waves of smooth muscle contractions
Epiglottis a flap of tissue that covers the opening to the larynx
Gastroesophageal sphincter a circular muscle that contracts and prevents regurgitation of the food back into esophagus
Surface cells cells lining the stomach that secrete mucus to protect the stomach and lubricate the food
Gastrin located in the cells in the lower portion of the stomach that responds to protein entering the stomach. Stimulates secretion of HCl and pepsinogen
Parietal cells cells located in the stomach that secretes HCl
Chief cells cells located in the stomach that secretes pepsinogen
Pepsinogen the inactive zymogen of pepsin, which is converted by HCl
Intrinsic factor a glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells that complexes with vitamin B-12 so that it can be absorbed
Ulcers an excess of acid that causes the erosion of organ walls
Histamine stimulates HCl to be released into the lumen of the stomach
Cimetidine a compound that inhibits the binding of histamine to its receptor on the parietal cells
Small intestine function 90% of the digestion and absorption takes place here
Cholecystokinin (CCK) released from the intestinal mucosa that causes the pancreas to release digestive enzymes; triggered by the presence of fat in the small intestine
Secretin a compound released in response to entering chyme from the stomach that causes the release bicarbonate ion
Acini secreting structures in the pancreas that secretes s fluid into the small intestine that has a high bicarbonate content
Bile fat emulsifier, which helps with absorption
Chylomicrons aggregations of triglycerides
Osmoconfomers organisms that can match their internal concentration of body fluids to that of the environment
Osmoregulator organisms that do not match their internal concentration of body fluids to that of the environment
Functions of the kidney filtration, reabsorption, excretion
Nephron functional unit of the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, and a tubular system
Glomerulus a collection of capillaries that receives blood from an artery terminating in the renal system
Bowman’s capsule the capsule that houses the glomerulus
Blood plasma a solution which is about 90% water as well as organic and inorganic substances.
Filtrate in Bowman’s capsule components the blood plasma minus the proteins
Renal artery the blood vessel leading blood to the kidney
Renal vein the blood vessel that leads blood away from the kidney
Ureter channel that transports the urine to the bladder, which empties through the urethra
Proximal convoluted tubule obligatory section of the nephron because roughly 65% of all reabsorption and secretions occurs here
PCT absorptions 100% of all glucose, 80% of the Na+ ions, Cl- ions, and water.
Descending thin portion of the loop of Henle permeable to water, but only relatively permeable to ions like sodium and molecules like urea
Ascending thin portion of the loop of Henle permeable to urea but much les permeable to water
Ascending thick portion of the loop of Henle active transport of sodium and potassium
Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) impermeable to urea and water, but permeable to ions like sodium
Aldosterone secreted by the adrenal cortex that causes sodium to be reabsorbed
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced by hypothalamus released by the posterior pituitary gland and increases water reabsorption
Metabolic acidosis if the volume of enteric fluid that is lost to overwhelm the ability of the kidney to regulate proper acid-base levels. Hyperventilation will result to eliminate carbon dioxide
Created by: ruiyuwu1998
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