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Endothermic reaction A reaction that requires energy input
Exothermic reaction A reaction that gives off energy
Enzymes (4 Characteristics) -Lower activation energy of a reaction. -Increase the rate of the reaction. -Do not affect the overall (delta)G or (delta)H of the reaction -Are not changed or consumed in the course of the reaction
Apoenzymes Enzymes without their cofactors
Holoenzymes Enzymes that contain their cofactors
Allosteric Enzymes An enzymes that has multiple binding sites. The active site is present, as well as at least one other site that can regulate the availability of the active site
Allosteric activators An activator will result in a shift that makes the active site more available for binding to the substrate
Allosteric inhibitors An inhibitor will result in a shift that makes the active site less available for binding to the substrate.
Feedback Inhibition In feedback inhibition, the product may bind to an enzyme or enzymes that acted earlier in its biosynthetic pathway, thereby making the enzyme unavailable for other substrate to use.
Competitive Inhibition [How can it be overcome?] An enzyme inhibitor that binds to the active site, thus competing with substrate. [It can be overcome by adding more substrate]
Noncompetitive Inhibition [How is it overcome?] An enzyme inhibitor that binds to an allosteric site instead of the active site, which induces a change in enzyme conformation. [Cannot be overcome by adding more substrate. Can't be overcome at all]
Irreversible Inhibition An enzyme inhibitor that binds to the active site and makes it permanently unavailable.
Zymogen/Proenzymes An inactive enzyme precursor.
Created by: chri14
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