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Embryology

Biology

TermDefinition
Indeterminate cleavage Indeterminate cleavage results in cells that can still develop into complete organisms. These create humans.
Cleavage A zygote undergoes rapid mitotic cell divisions
Determinate cleavage Determinate cleavage results in cells that are committed to differentiating into a certain type of cell.
Blastula Blastulas are characterized by the presence of a hollow, fluid-filled inner cavity known as a blastocoel. It consists of a "trophoblast" and "inner cell mass"
Trophoblast Trophoblast cells surround the blastocoel and give rise to the chorion and later the placenta
Inner cell mass The inner cell mass protrudes into the blastocoel and gives rise to the organism itself.
Implantation Planting an embryo into the endometrium, progesterone provides the fertile soil by promoting proliferation.
Gastrulation The generation of three distinct cell layers
Archenteron The cavity created by the deep invagination, which later develops into the gut
Blastopore The opening of the archenteron. In deuterostomes, such as humans, the blastopore develops into the anus. In protostomes, it develops into the mouth.
Ectoderm Attract-oderm: Integument (including the epidermis, hair, nails, epithelium of the nose, mouth, and anal canal), lens of the eye, and the nervous system. Adrenal MEDULLA
Mesoderm Means-oderm (get from place to place): Musculoskeletal system, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, muscular and connective tissue coats of the digestive and respiratory systems. Adrenal CORTEX
Endoderm End-dernal (mouth ---> anus and lungs): Epithelial linings of digestive and respiratory tracts and parts of the liver, pancreas, thyroid, bladder, and distal urinary and reproductive tracts.
Neurulation Development of the nervous system.
Placenta The organ where nutrient, gas, and waste exchanges occur.
Amniotic Fluid A shock absorber during pregnancy and labor (similar to a car's airbags)
Yolk sac The site of early blood vessel development
Chorionic villi Grow into the placenta and support maternal-fetal gas exchange
Foramen ovale Connects the right atrium to the left atria
Ductus arteriosus Connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta to shunt leftover blood that doesn't go through the foramen ovale
Ductus venosus shunts most of the left umbilical vein blood flow directly to the inferior vena cava. Thus, it allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver.
Umbilical arteries (Away from the fetus) Carry deoxygenated blood away from the fetus
Umbilical vein (To the fetus) Carry oxygenated blood to the fetus
First Trimester Most of the organs have formed, the brain is fairly developed, and the embryo is referred to as a fetus
Second Trimester The fetus grows. It begins to move around in the amniotic fluid, its face appears, and its toes and fingers elongate
Third Trimester Continued rapid growth and further brain development. Antibodies are transported by highly selective active transport from the mother to the fetus.
Created by: chri14
 

 



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