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Name given to the upper part of the dorsum nasi supported by nasal bones. 103 Bridge
Structure which has a lateral and medial crus to hold open the nostrils. 103 Greater alar cartilage
Name bony components forming the roof of the nasal cavity. 103 Nasal bone, frontal bone, cribriform plate of ethmoid, body of sphenoid
Internally correspond to alae of the nose; has sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hairs. 103 Vestibule
Located bw anterior end of middle concha and the dorsum of the nose; site of an anterior ethmoidal air cell? 104 Agger nasi
Swelling in the middle meatus, marks the position of ethmoid air cells. 104 Ethmoid bulla
Immediated structure that receives ostium of the frontonasal duct? 104 Ethmoidal infundibulum
A ridge within the nasal cavity separating stratified squamous from respiratory mucosa. 104 Limen nasi
Specific structure responsible for forming the limen nasi. 104 Lower edge of the lateral nasal cartilage
Into what meatus does the frontal sinus drain? 104 Middle meatus via frontonasal duct and ethmoidal infundibulum
Into what meatus does the maxillary sinus drain? 104 Middle meatus via the floor of the infundibulum
A structure which drains into the inferior meatus. 104 Nasolacrimal duct
Opening of ethmoidal infundibulum into the meatus. 104 Semilunar hiatus
A sharp mucosal covered ridge of the middle meatus. 104 Uncinate process
Hypertrophied lymphatic components on the roof of the nasopharynx. 105 Adenoids
Meatus into which the nasolacrimal duct drains. 105 Inferior
Give 2 components of lateral wall of the nasopharynx? 105 Ostia of auditory tubes & pharnygeal muscles
Place in which the sphenoid sinus drains? 105 Sphenoethmoidal recess
Specific structure that supports the tracheal bifurcation. 106 Carina
Name two structures related to the left side of the thoracic part of the trachea. 106 Left recurrent laryngeal n., arch of aorta, left common carotid a., left subclavian v.
Define a bronchopulmonary segment. 106 Portion of a lung supplied with air from a tertiary bronchus
What is the vertebral level of tracheal bifurcation? 106 T4/5
Name two pleural recesses? Give function? Structural composition? 107 Costodiaphragmatic & Castomediastinal All for expansion of the lungs during inspiration. Parietal pleura
Name given to parietal pleura over apex of lung. 107 Cupula
Give 2 landmarks present on medial surface of right lung, but not the left. 107 Grooves for the superior & inferior vena cava
Give the origin of the lumbar part of the diaphragm? 108 Arises from the vertebral column as left & right crura. Also arises from fascial thickenings termed lateral & medial arculate ligaments
Fissure separating upper and middle lobes of the right lung. 108 Horizontal fissure
Left lung homologue of middle lobe of right lung. 108 Lingula
Vertebral level of esophageal hiatus? 108 T10
What is the vertebral level of the esophageal hiatus? 108 T10
Greater level of aortic hiatus 108 T12
What is the vertebral level of the aortic hiatus? 108 T12
What is the vertebral level of hiatus of the inferior vena cava? 108 T8
Define the root of the lung. 108 The structures which pass through the hilus = bronchi, vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
Besides the aorta, list two structures which can pass through the aortic hiatus. 108 Thoracic duct, azygos vein
In a surface projection, the lower border of the liver extends along a line from the right ____ rib to the left ____ rib. 109 10; 5
In a surface projection, where is the spleen located? 109 Deep to the LEFT 9,10,11 ribs and posterior to midaxillary line.
In a surface projection, where is the transpyloric plane located? 109 Half way between the suprasternal notch and the pubis,about one hand breadth below the xiphoid.
Besides the pylorus, give 2 specific parts of viscera through which the transpyloric plane passes? 109 Hilus of kidney, Neck of pancreas, Duodenojejunal junction
What is the vertebral level for transpyloric plane? 109 L1
What is the vertebral level for the subcostal plane? 109 L3
The umbilicus is a variable landmark. In the normal adult it lies at the junction of what vertebrae? 109 L3-L4
What is the vertebral level for the intertubercular or transtubercular plane? 109 L5
What is the vertebral level for the xiphoid process? 109 T9
In a surface projection, where is the gall bladder located? 110 Deep to the tip of costal cartilage 9
In a surface projection, where is the base of the appendix (McBurney's point) located? 110 Junction of the lower 1/3 and middle 1/3 of a line connecting the umbilicus and the RIGHT anterior superior iliac spine.
Give the spinal level of the aorta bifurcation. 110 L4
In a surface projection, where is the right colic flexure located? 110 Under inferior aspect of liver and RIGHT costal cartilage 10
In a surface projection, where is the transverse colon located? 111 About the level of the umbilicus
In a surface projection, where is the left colic flexure located? 111 Deep to the LEFT costal cartilage 8
Makes of the greatest part of the uterine tube, it is thin walled. 113 Ampulla
Name and define the normal positions of the uterus. 114 Anteverted: tilted forward from vagina, Anteflexed: uterus curved anteriorly
Give all structural components forming the broad ligament. 115 (A) The anterior and posterior sheets of peritoneum approximate one another, and extend from the uterus to the lateral pelvic wall.
Specific part of broad ligament surrounding the uterine tube. 115 (A2) Mesosalpinx
Specific named part of broad ligament that forms it's inferior aspect. 115 (A3) Mesometrium
Define the cardinal ligament. In your answer include: structural composition, specific location, alternate name, and specific part of organ to which it is attached. 115 (B2) Connective Tissue, In Base (Inferior Part) of Broad Ligament, Lateral cervical ligament, Isthmus (of uterus)
What lies immediately medial to the anterior half of the uterosacral ligament? 115 Rectouterine pouch
The part of the levitator ani that arises from the arcus tendeneus. 117 (A.b) Iliococcygeus
Landmark through which the tendon of the obturator externus exits the pelvis. ## Lesser sciatic foramen
Landmark through which the tendon of the obturator internus exits the pelvis. 117 (A) Lesser sciatic foramen
Component which forms the arcus tendineus. 117 (A) Obturator Fascia is thickened from pubis to ischial spine
Part of the levator ani that prevents incontinence. 117 (A1) Puborectalis
Part of pelvic diaphragm which originates off the ischial spine and sacrotuberous ligament. 117 Coccygeus m.
Muscle lining the posterior wall of the pelvis. 117 Piriformis
Structure located within the lateral umbilical folds? ## Inferior epigastric vessels (Netter p.247)
Specific bladder surfaces which meet at its neck. 119 Inferolateral and posterior surfaces
Tubular structure present at the junction of only the inferolateral and superior surfaces of the bladder. 119 Median umbilical ligament
Pouch immediately posterior to male bladder. 119 Rectovesical pouch
Potential space anterior to bladder. 119 Retropubic space
Potential space anterior to bladder? 119 Retropubic space
Pouch immediately posterior to the female bladder. 119 Vesicouterine pouch
Give the capacity of undistended bladder. 120 500 ml
Name given to the majority of smooth muscle forming the wall of the bladder. 120 Detrusor muscle
Artery to bladder directly from the internal iliac? 120 Inferior or superior vesical a.
Discuss the derivation of the trigone muscle. 120 longitudinal smooth muscle of the ureters
Give landmarks when interconnected by a line will form the perimeter of the vesical trigone. 120 reter orifice & internal urethral orifice
Give the arteries to bladder directly from the internal iliac. 120 Superior, middle, and inferior vesical arteries
Give the venous drainage of female bladder. 120 Vesical-vaginal plexus to internal iliac vein
Voluntary control over the urge to micturate involves what? 121 Elevation of levator ani muscles
Specific cup-like structures which surround the apices of the renal pyramids only. 121 Minor Calyces
The descent of the _____ of the ____ is essential to the initiation of normal urination? 121 Neck Bladder
Component immediately external to renal fascia? 121 PARArenal fat
Component immediately internal to renal fascia? 121 PERIrenal fat
Component immediately internal to pararenal fat. 121 Renal Fascia
Using vertebral levels, where do the kidneys lie when in the supine position? Do they move in the erect position, if so how far? 121 T12 to L2/3; They move caudally one inch in the erect position.
Using vertebral levels, where do the kidenys lie when in the supine postion? Do they move when in erect position? 121 T12-L2,3 Yes, move caudally about an inch.
Give the bony posterior relations of the left kidney. 122 11th and 12th ribs
Besides the suprarenal gland, give two structures related anteriorly with the right kidney. 122 2nd part of duodenum, right colic flexure, liver
Besides the stomach and splenic vessels, give 2 viscera (give specific part when needed) immediately related to the spleen. Use only those mentioned in handout. 122 Left kidney, Tail of pancreas
Name four muscles related posteriorly to the kidneys. 122 Psoas major, quadratic lumborum, transversus abdominus, respiratory diaphragm
Name two nerves that are posteriorly related to the kidneys. 122 Subcostal, iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal
Besides the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, name the other cartilages of the larynx. 127 arytenoid, epiglottic, corniculate, cuneiform
This structure passes upward from the arch of the cricoid cartilage; on its upper edge it is thickened to form the vocal ligaments. 127 Conus elasticus
Laryngeal cartilage located on the upper edge of the quadrangular membrane? 128 Cuneiform Cartilages
Entrance to larynx 131 Aditus
The mucosal reflection over the upper edge of the quadrangular membrane of the larynx. 131 Aryepiglottic fold
Structure over which the mucosa of the larynx is reflected to form the vestibular fold. 131 Quadrangular membrane
Slit-like opening between the true vocal cords. 131 Rima glottidis
Slit-like opening between the false vocal cords. 131 Rima vestibuli
Give the term for the space between the true and false vocal cords. 131 Ventricle
Name given to mucosal reflection formed by the lower edge of the quadrangular membrane. 131 Vestibular fold (false vocal cord)
What muscle of the larynx lengthens and tightens the vocal cord, thus increasing pitch? 132 Cricothyroid
Muscles of the larynx not innervated by reccurent laryngeal n? 132 Cricothyroid
What muscle(s) of the larynx is/are not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal n.? 132 Cricothyroid
What muscle of the larynx inserts on the muscular process of the arytenoid and rotates the cartilage medially, but does not pull the cartilage anteriorly? 132 Lateral cricoarytenoid
What muscle(s) of the larynx act(s) as a sphincter of the laryngeal inlet? 132 Oblique arytenoid and aryepiglottic muscles
What laryngeal muscles aBduct the vocal cords? 132 Posterior cricoarytenoid
What muscle of the larynx extends from posterior surface of the cricoid lamina to the muscular process of the arytenoids cartilage? 132 Posterior cricoarytenoid
Describe the motor innervation (include components innervated) to the larynx. 132 recurrent laryngeal to all intrinsic muscles except external branch of superior laryngeal n. to cricothyroid m.
Antagonist to Cricothyroid? 132 Thyroarytenoid
What muscle of the larynx is an antagonist to the cricothyroid muscle? 132 Thyroarytenoid
Located immediately medial to the thyroarytenoid, it acts to tense the vocal cords? 132 Vocalis
Counting the outer skin of the anterior scrotum as the first layer, give the fourth layer thorugh which a penetrating item would pass. 135 Cremaster m. and fascia
What is the position of the right testis when compared to the left (higher or lower)? 135 Higher (just think about it)
What is the derivation of the cremaster muscle? 135 Internal oblique muscle and fascia
Counting the outer skin of the anterior scrotum as 1st layer, give the sixth layer through which a penetrating item would pass. 135 Parietal layer of tunica vaginalis
Component applied to most of the external surface of the tunica albuginia of the testis? 135 Visceral layer Tunica vaginalis
Approximate length of ductus epididymis. 136 (2) 20-23 ft (6-8 m)
Give the composition of the head of the epididymis. 136 (2a) efferent ducts and proximal ductus epididymis
What is the first part of the male urethra? 136 Prostatic urethra
Homologue of the female vagina, formerly thought to be homologue of uterus. 137 (2;1) Prostatic utricle
Define the isthmus of the prostate. 137 (3c) The anterior lobe or isthmus, in midline, anterior to urethra and devoid of glands.
List three differently named structures located in the deep perineal space of the male. 137 (C) external urethral sphincter, deep transverse perineal muscle, bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands
What structure is related to the apex of the prostate? 137 Deep perineal space/pouch
Define location of the posterior lobe of the prostate. 137 In Midline, Posterior to urethra and inferior to ejaculatory duct
What structure is related to the inferolateral surface of the prostate? 137 Levitator ani muscle
Define location of the median lobe of the prostate. 137 Midline, posterior to urethra, superior to ejaculatory ducts
What structure is associated with the base of the prostate? 137 Neck of the urinary bladder
Depression just lateral to the colliculus seminalis? 137 Prostatic sinuses
Draw a simple picture of the colliculus seminal is and label correctly the position of components present on it. 137 Prostatic Utricle, Ejaculatory Ducts, Prostatic Sinus
What structure is related to the posterior surface of the prostate gland? 137 Recturm
Part of male duct system which passes through the prostate and into the urethra. 137 Urethral crest
Besides lymphatics and nerves, give three specific structures located within the spermatic cord. Give the name of the their immediate covering. 138 1) Ductus deferens w/ its artery and vein 2) Testicular artery 3) Papiniform plexus of veins. All are surrounded by internal spermatic fascia
Forms the anterior boundary of the anal triangle. 143 A line passing through the ischial tuberosities
Forms superior boundary of the perineum. 143 Pelvic diaphragm
Structure forming the posterolateral border of the anal triangle. 143 Sacrotuberous ligaments
The anterior recesses of the ischiorectal fossa are located superiorly and inferiorly between what two structures? 144 Deep perineal pouch and levator ani (or pelvic diaphragm)
Discuss in detail the course taken by the internal pudendal artery and pudendal nerve as they exit the pelvis and pass through the anal canal. 145 1) Exits pelvis through greater sciatic foramen/notch 2) Dorsally cross over ischial spine 3) Enters anal triangle through lesser sciatic foramen/notch 4) Enters pudendal (Alcock's) canal
Using an outline format, name all the branches and subbranches of the pudendal nerve. 145 155 1.Inferior Rectal n. 2. Perineal n. -> a) posterior labial/scrotal nn. b) deep branches 3. Dorsal n. of clitoris/penis
Besides the pudendal nerve, give the sources of innervation to the anal triangle. 145 Perineal branch of S4, perineal branches of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
Forms the upper limit (roof) of the deep perineal space. 146 Anterior recess of the ischioanal fossae
Structure forming the inferior limit of the deep perineal space. 146 Perineal membrane
Define the crura of the perineum. 147 Corpus cavernosa attached to urogenital structures (definition for cura of penis same as peritoneum?)
Besides skin and fascia, name two structures located within the labia majora. 148 Greater vestibular glands, 149 Bulbospongiosus m.,
Female homologue of proximal part of the corpus spongiosum. 148 Vestibular bulb
From what components does the suspensory ligament of the clitoris arise? 149 Deep fascia of lower abdomen
From what components does the prepuce of the clitoris arise? 149 Lateral folds of the labia minora
Fold of skin formed by labia minora; forms a hood over most of the clitoris. 149 Prepuce
Define the pudendal cleft. 149 Space between labia majora
List two different muscles occupying the superficial perineal space (also on inferior surface of the perineal membrane). 150 Bulbospongiosus m., ischiocavernosus m., superficial transverse perineal mm.
The ____ fascia of the perineum is not continuous with the dartos of the scrotum. 150 Deep
What fascial layer is also known as Buck's fascia? 150 Deep fascia of clitoris/penis
Name given to abdominal Scarpa's fascia in the perineal region. 150 Deep layer of the superficial perineal fascia (Colles)
Scarpa's fascia of the abdomen continues into the perineum as the _____layer of the _______perineal fascia, formerly known as ______fascia. Anteromedially, this fascia is continuous with the ________. 150 Deep, Superficial, Colles', Dartos m. of the scrotum
Name given to Camper's fascia in the perineal region. 150 Superficial layer of the superficial perineal fascia
A patient presents with a ruptured bulbar penile urethra. The deep fascia of the perineum is not damaged. In which area(s) would you expect urine to collect during micturition? 151 Penis
The internal pudendal artery terminates as: 155 Deep artery of penis/clitoris, Dorsal artery of penis/clitoris
Name two branches of the perineal artery. 155 Transverse perineal a., posterior labial/scrotal a.
The deep dorsal vein of the penis/clitoris enters the pelvis b/w what ligaments? 155 Transverse perineal and inferior pubic ligaments
Created by: sor32663
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