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OCR GCSE Science C1

OCR 21st Century Science C1

The air is a mixture of different gases, consisting of small [] with large [] between them molecules--spaces--.
The relative proportions of the main three gases in the atmosphere [including percentages] are approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% argon.
Other gases apart from the main three or particulates may be released into the atmosphere by human [] or by natural [] human activity or by natural processes (e.g. v[]es), and these can affect air volcanoes--quality.
The Earth's early atmosphere is thought to probably have been formed from the [] given out by [] gases--volcanoes. The Early atmosphere 'probably' consisted mainly of [...] and [...] carbon dioxide and water vapour.
When the Earth cooled, [...] []d to form the oceans cooled, water vapour condensed to form the oceans.
Early plant life [] oxygen levels and [] carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, due to [] increased--decreased--photosynthesis--; during photosynthesis the early plants used up [] and released [] carbon dioxide--oxygen--.
Carbon dioxide was removed from the early atmosphere by (1)[] in the oceans and then forming [...] dissolving in the oceans and then forming sedimentary rocks; (2) a lot of carbon dioxide was trapped [] and eventually formed [...] underground--fossil fuels.
Tiny bits of solid suspended in the air are known as particulates. Humans add particulates and carbon monoxide to the atmosphere through incomplete combustion.
Humans add sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere through [] [] power stations where fuels have [] and [] atoms in them sulfur and nitrogen atoms in them. (Nitrogen oxides may also be added to the atomosphere due to oxidation in the high heat in a car engine.)
Humans add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere through complete combustion (e.g. during burning of fossil fuels), after carbon atoms combine with oxygen.
Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and particulates are all called p[] pollutants.
Some pollutants are directly [] to humans harmful--, while some are harmful to the [] and thus cause [] to humans []ly environment--harm--indirectly--.
Sulfur dioxide produces acid rain when it reacts with [] and [] water--oxygen--.
Carbon monoxide is a p[] gas poisonous--.
Carbon monoxide changes the amount of [] that [] can carry oxygen--blood--. This makes people's existing [] conditions worse heart--.
|Where do pollutants go?| Carbon dioxide dissolves in [...] and [...] rain water and sea water, and is used by plants in photosynthesis.
Excess levels of carbon dioxide can give rise to [] [] global warming.
Nitrogen monoxide reacts in the [] to form n[] [] atmosphere[/air]--nitrogen--dioxide--. It does so after it is oxidised.
Nitrogen dioxide produces acid rain by reacting with [] and [] water and oxygen.
|Where do pollutants go?| Particulates are deposited on [], making them [] surfaces--dirty--. They can also be breathed into the l[]s and can make a[]a and lung i[]ions worse lungs--asthma--lung infections--.
Two gases that produce acid rain are sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. The acid rain is harmful to the e[] environment.
Coal is mainly carbon.
Pe[], d[] f[] and f[] o[] are mainly compounds of hydrogen and carbon petrol, diesel fuel and fuel oil are mainly compounds of hydrogen and carbon. Petrol, diesel fuel and fuel oil are mainly h[]s
Compounds of hydrogen and carbon are known as hydrocarbons.
When fuels burn, atoms of [] and/or [] from the fuel combine with atoms of [] from the [] carbon--hydrogen--oxygen--air--, which leads to the production of [...] and/or [] carbon dioxide and/or water.
Water can be referred to as [] [] hydrogen oxide.
A substance chemically combining with oxygen is an example of [], while loss of oxygen is an example of [] oxidation--reduction--. Combustion reactions therefore involve oxidation.
Fuels burn more rapidly in pure [] than in air oxygen--.
Oxygen can be obtained from the a[] atmosphere and can be used to support c[] combustion (e.g. in o[]-fuel w[]ing t[]es). oxy-fuel welding torches--.
In a chemical reaction, the properties of the reactants and products are different. This may be as, during a chemical reaction, atoms are r[] rearranged.
Interpret representations of the rearrangement of atoms during a chemical reaction. [#C1#]
During the course of a chemical reaction, the number of atoms of each element in the products and in the reactants are the same, thus conserving mass.
If a fuel that is burned contains any sulfur: the sulfer []es to produce [...] oxidises--sulfur dioxide--. An example of this is sulfur dioxide in [] gases in coal-burning power stations
A product from burning fuel is p[] particulates - small pieces of unburned carbon.
When carbon burns in a limited supply of oxygen, the result is both carbon monoxide and particulates.
Nitrogen oxides can come from the reaction between a[]c [] atoms and [] atmospheric nitrogen atoms and oxygen at the [] temperatures inside e[] high--engines--.
The chemical formula for carbon dioxide is CO₂ [#C2.1#].
The chemical formula for carbon monoxide is CO [#C2.2#].
The chemical formula for sulfur dioxide is SO₂ [#C2.3#].
The chemical formula for nitrogen monoxide is NO [#C2.4#].
The chemical formula for nitrogen dioxide is NO₂ [#C2.5#].
The chemical formula for water is H₂O [#C2.6#].
NO and NO₂ are jointly referred to as (as a formula) NOₓ, which in words is known as [] [] nitrogen oxides.
Atmospheric p[] cannot just dissapear, they have to go somewhere pollutants--.
Atmospheric pollution caused by power stations that burn fossil fuels can be reduced by customers using less electricity, as the power stations would thus produce [more/less] [] and thus less p[]s less electricity thus less pollutants.
Atmospheric pollution caused by power stations that burn fossil fuels can be reduced by the removal of [] from natural [] and f[] o[] sulfur--. This is as sulfur dioxide, which will be produced as a result of c[]ion, is a []t combustion--pollutant--.
Waste gases are also known as f[] gases flue--.
Atmospheric pollution caused by power stations that burn fossil fuels can be reduced by removing [...] and [] from the flue gases sulphur dioxide--particulates--, which are emitted by []-burning power stations coal--(as sulful dioxide and particulates are pollutants).
Sulfur dioxide is removed from flue gases by wet scrubbing.
The only way of producing less carbon dioxide is to burn less fossil fuels - to do so, al[] methods of creating energy would be conducive alternative--.
Wet scrubbing can be done using an [] s[] or s[] [] alkaline slurry--sea water--.
The atmosphere(air) that surrounds the Earth is made up mainly of [], [] and [], plus small amounts of [] [], [] [] and other gases nitrogen, oxygen and argon, plus small amounts of water vapour, carbon dioxide and other gases.
Atmospheric pollution caused by exhaust emmisiouns from motor vehicles can be reduced by: burning less fuel, for example by having more [] engines efficient--; using low [] fuels sulfur--; using c[] c[] catalytic converters (in which nitrogen monoxide is converted to [] by [] of [] and carbon monoxide is converted to [...] by [] nitrogen by loss of oxygen, and carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide by oxydation); adjusting the balance between [] and [] transport public--private--; having limits to e[] e[] exhaust emissions, which are enforced by MOT tests.
Created by: Toluo