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RECONSTRUCTION The reorganization and rebuilding of the former Confederate States after the Civil War.
13TH AMENDMENT Law that made slavery illegal
14TH AMENDMENT Law that all people born in the US are citizens (entitled to "equal protection of the law" and "due process")
15TH AMENDMENT Law that gave voting rights to African American men. ("the right to vote shall not be denied on the basis of race")
KU KLUX KLAN Worked to keep blacks and white republicans out of office. They used threats and violence.
LITERACY TESTS Had to be able to read a section of the Constitution in order to vote
POLL TAX Had to pay a tax to vote
GRANDFATHER CLAUSE If a voter's father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1, 1867, then they were excused from literacy test.
SEGREGATION Separated people by race in public places (Jim Crow Laws)
PLESSY VS. FERGUSON Supreme Court rules that segregation was constitutional as long as facilities were equal (separate but equal).
SHARECROPPING Rented a plot of land and shared a percentage of crops with land owners
WESTWARD MOVEMENT California Gold Rush (1849), Homestead Act (1862), & Completion of transcontinental railroad (1869); Factors that encouraged west settlement.
HOMESTEAD ACT Provided free land to settlers who agreed to farm it for at least 5 years (1862)
DAWES ACT Tried to bring Native Americans into white culture by breaking up reservations and tribal groups
MANIFEST DESTINY The idea popular in the US during the 1800s that the country must expand its boundaries to the Pacific
RESERVATIONS An area of public lands set aside for Native Americans
INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT Congress passed this act which required railroads to change and publish "reasonable and just rates"; Set up the ICC to oversee the railroad (1887)
BIG BUSINESS Reduced competition which increased prices, lower quality products and less innovation; Result created ICC & Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD Stretched from the east coast to the west coast. It was faster, safer, and cheaper.
INDUSTRIALIZATION The development of industry on an extensive scale
TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST FIRE Outcome of this fire was that the Intercontinental Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) was created ; Created by women because many unions would not admit them.
LABOR STRIKES A work stoppage by employees who are trying to grieve problems in their job.
STANDARD OIL COMPANY Founded by John D. Rockefeller in 1870; held a monopoly over the industry; Lowered his prices, pressured customers not to deal with his rivals & got railroads to give him special rates
SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST ACT Law that made monopolies and trusts illegal (1890)
LABOR UNIONS Created by dissatisfied workers to demand better pay and working conditions from their employers
KNIGHTS OF LABOR Leader Terrence Powderly; One of the first unions, organization of garment cutters and became unpopular because of a wave of strikes (1869-1890s)
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR Union of skilled workers in various crafts; Found in 1881 by Samuel Gompers; Purpose was to increase wages, create shorter work hours and improve working conditions
ROBBER BARONS Owners of large companies who become more powerful and used unfair techniques to earn profits
ASSEMBLY LINE Method of production in which workers add parts to build a product
CORPORATION Business owned by investors
STOCK/SHARE Raised money for a business through sale of stock; The investor becomes a shareholder
POPULIST PARTY Farmers Labor Union helped with falling prices, higher railroad rates, income tax, 8 hour work day, limits on immigration
TRUSTS A combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition
MONOPOLIES Total control of a type of industry by one person or one company
URBANIZATION The movement from farms to cities; Beginning in the 1800s after the Civil War
ASSIMILATION The process of becoming similar to another culture
NATIVISM Person who wanted to limit new immigrants to the US; The belief that America should be preserved for the white protestants (Old Immigrants)
JANE ADAMS The leading figure of settlement houses movement; From Chicago
IMMIGRATION Coming to live permanently in a foreign country
SETTLEMENT HOUSES A community center offers services to the poor
STATUE OF LIBERTY Was a symbol of freedom
TENEMENT BUILDINGS Buildings that were divided up into small apartments; Many had no heat, no windows, or indoor bathrooms
EMMA LAZARUS Wrote a poem about who was welcome in the US; According to the poem, the homeless, poor, tired and tempest-tossed garbage were welcome in America
OLD IMMIGRANTS Before 1880, they were from NW Europe (England, France, Netherlands); Protestants
NEW IMMIGRANTS Between 1880 & 1921, they came from Southern & Eastern Europe, Asia, & Latin America, Catholic & Jewish
PUSH FACTORS Famine (Ireland), Lack of Jobs, Lack of Land, political & religious persecution (jews), poverty, and hardship revolution
PULL FACTORS Promise of freedom, better life, gold, factory jobs, land out west, chance to join family & friends already settled in US
FACTORY WORKERS Hired Children because they were cheap labor
SWEATSHOPS Workers worked 8 to 12 hour days for 6 days a week to earn about $1 an hour
MASS PRODUCTION Making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
ASSEMBLY LINE Method of production in which workers add parts to build a product
ADVANTAGES ASSEMBLY LINE Unskilled workers; workers don't need experience; cheaper labor; products cheaper
DISADVANTAGES ASSEMBLY LINE Hard to attract workers, less variety, too much management involvement, no customization, repetitive work (boring), long hours, easy to be replaced & final product not well made
PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT A person who wants to improve society (social, economic, & political); To evolve & improve (Period 1876-1914)
MUCKRAKERS Journalist who seeks to expose a problem in society (ex: Upton Sinclair, Jacob Riis)
TRUSTBUSTERS To break up trusts that were too strong.
MEAT INSPECTION ACT Forced meat packers to open their doors to government inspectors
PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT Required food and drug makers to list ingredients on packages and tried to end use of impure ingredients; made false advertising illegal
19TH AMENDMENT Women gained the right to vote (suffrage); Result of WWI (1920)
18th AMENDMENT Illegal to make, sell, or transport alcohol (1919); Not effective since the government did not have enough money to enforce the unpopular law.
21ST AMENDMENT Repealed the 18th Amendment (1933)
16TH AMENDMENT Gave Congress the power to impose a federal income tax
17TH AMENDMENT Provides for the direct election of US Senators (2 per state)
THEODORE ROOSEVELT 1901- 1910; Set aside 170,000 acres of national parkland; launched the break-up of Rockfellers Std. Oil Company; Passed Food and Drug Act & Meat Inspection Act (1906)
WOODROW WILSON 1913-1921; Control big business; Improve living conditions; Established a system of Federal Reserve banks to regulate money
MILITARISM The policy of building up strong arm forces to prepare for war. To make their armies stronger.
ALLIANCES Friendship between two countries and were formed to protect themselves; Made their forces stronger by combining nations
NATIONALISM Pride in one's nation; To have bragging rights to say who is better; Fueled by tension by creating the superior right to conquer.
IMPERIALISM One person (country) tries to conquer everything ("World Bully"); People wanted to get more land which fueled rivalries between two nations
ALLIED POWERS - WWI Serbia, Russia, France & Britain
CENTRAL POWERS - WWI Austria-Hungary & Germany
ASSASSINATION The final spark when Archduke Ferdinand was killed by a terrorist group while in Bosnia. They were angry because they wanted Bosnia to break away from Austria-Hungary and join Serbia
REASONS US JOINED WWI Submarine Warfare, Lusitania, Zimmerman Telegram, Russian Revolution, & To make the world safe for democracy
WILSON'S REASONING FOR JOINING WWI To try and spread democracy to other nations
SUBMARINE WARFARE Germany did not want the US aiding Britain so they blew up the ships. This violated the "Freedom of the Seas". They were only allowed to stop and search, but not attack neutral ship.
LUSITANIA A British passenger ship that the Germans torpedoed off the coast of Ireland. US was angered because there were 128 Americans that were killed.
ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM Germany asked Mexico to attack the US if they joined the war. Germany in exchange would help them gain lost land. Britain intercepted this message and told the US. US got angry
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Russian dictator was overthrown and made the US less hesitant to join the war.
SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT 1917 - Authorized the "Selective Service" of men 21-30 years of age for the duration of the war (DRAFT)
CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES People were going to conserve their resources (ex: meatless tuesday's, planting victory gardens, no gas sunday's)
ROLE OF WOMEN DURING WWI They took the place of men in factories, made items for the people in the war
WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD 1917 - Established to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. It encourages companies to use mass production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products.
LIBERTY BONDS A war bond sold in the US to support the ally cause in WWI
VICTORY GARDENS Vegetable, fruit, and herb gardens were planted at private residences and public parks during WWI to reduce the pressure on the public food supply brought on by the war.
KEY ASPECTS OF WAR Stalemate, Trench Warfare, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Armistice, & Cost of War
COSTS OF WWI 8-9 million dies, more than 20 million wounded. N. France lay in ruins, Germans near starvation, many in France and other nations were orphaned and homeless
WILSON'S MAIN GOAL To avoid future conflicts
LEAGUE OF NATIONS 14th point in Wilson's plan. It was to prevent future wars by allowing nations to discuss problems.
WILSON'S EXAMPLE TO ENSURE FUTURE PEACE No secret agreements, Freedom of the Seas, & Reduce weapons
LEAGUE OF NATIONS Woodrow Wilson's point that got incorporated into the Final Treaty
MAIN GOAL OF THE COUNTRIES (NOT US) - WWI To punish Germany and make them accept responsibility for the war
THREE WAYS GERMANY WAS PUNISHED - WWI Forced to reduce their land, take blame for the war, and pay war reparations
TREATY OF VERSAILLES Included the League of Nations; Was rejected by US as some felt it was too harsh, others felt it was too soft, others wanted to stay out of world affairs and it feared it would draw us into future European wars.
ALLIED POWER - WWII US, Great Britain, Soviet Union, China
AXIS POWERS - WWII Germany, Japan Italy
DICTATORS Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, & Hirohito
MUNICH AGREEMENT Gave Germany land as long as they did not take anymore.
PEARL HARBOR Where Japan attacked US
NEUTRALITY ACTS Laws that were established to have the US not take sides in the war.
CASH AND CARRY ACT The US sold goods to the Allied Powers as long as they carried it back to their countries
LEND-LEASE ACT Allowed the US to lend military equipment to certain nations.
EUROPEAN WAR D-Day, Battle of Bulge, V-E Day, & Holocaust
GLOBAL WAR Nuremberg Trials
PACIFIC WAR Attack on Pearl Harbor, "Island Hopping" strategy, Battle of Midway, Battle of Iwo Jima & Use of 2 atomic bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki
ACTIONS ON THE HOME-FRONT - WWII Executive Order 9066, Role of Women, Role/Treatment of African Americans, Office of Price Administration, Victory Gardens, War Production Board, Censorship & Role/Treatment of Mexican Americans
WOMENS RIGHTS MOVEMENT Wanted the right to vote and be equal to men in both education and careers
SENECA FALLS CONVENTION 1848 - First Woman's Right Convention where about 200 women and 40 men attended. Issued a Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions which called for an end to laws that discriminated against woman. Most controversial issue was woman's right to vote.
WOMEN RIGHTS LEADERS Susan B. Anthony, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Stanton
SUFFRAGE The right to vote
SUSAN B ANTHONY Worked for women's rights and temperance. Called for equal pay for women, college training for girls, and coeducation.
PROHIBITION Nationwide ban on the manufacture, sale and transportation of liquor in the US.
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT The use of little or no alcoholic drink
RISE OF ORGANIZED CRIME Allowed the growth of the Mafia when the 18th Amendment was implemented.
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT A mass popular movement to secure for African Americans equal access to & opportunities for the basic privileges & rights of U.S. citizenship; the movement peaked in the 1950s and 1960s.
VIETNAM WAR 1956-1975
VIETNAM WAR GOALS To stop the spread of communism into the South so that the neighboring countries in Southeast Asia would also fall into communism
VIETNAM WAR AFTER WWII Vietnam was divided (North - Communist which was supported by the Soviet Union) - led by Ho Chi Minh); (South - Non-communist supported by the US led by Ngo Dinh Diem)
VIETNAM WAR RESULTS 1974 - Nixon pulled out troops, still funds S. Vietnam; 1975 - North takes over the South and became one united communist country.
DOMINO THEORY JFK believed that if South Vietnam fell to communism, neighboring countries in Southeast Asia would also fall to communism. Sent military advisers to help Diem fight the Vietcong.
HAWKS VS. DOVES One group was in favor of the war and the other was against the war.
NAACP Tried to gain rights for African Americans (Web DuBois, Booker T. Washington)
JOHN F KENNEDY 1961-1963
JOHN F KENNEDY Democrat; Goal was to increase the economy and help the poor; Assassinated in 1963
JOHN F KENNEDY Cuban Missile Crisis
LYNDON B JOHNSON Great Society Plan = to improve the standard of living of every American (Medicare - help people over 65 with medical bills & Medicaid - health insurance for the poor)
RICHARD NIXON Watergate Affair; High unemployment and slow economic growth
RICHARD NIXON Resigned (Not Impeached)
WATERGATE Accused of sending burglars into the watergate complex to steal information.
EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGES Conversations between president and staff are confidential, but it's not an absolute right; No one is above the law
2000 ELECTION George W Bush won the electoral vote, but Al Gore won the popular vote. George W Bush was declared the winner.
IMPERIALISM CAUSES Desire for: new overseas markets, natural resources, to increase American power, to acquire overseas naval bases, to spread American culture; "White Man's Burden"
IMPERIALISM LOCATIONS Alaska, Hawaii, Japan, China and Spanish-American War
WWI CAUSES Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism (Extreme), Imperialism & Assassination
WWI HOMEFRONT Selective Service Act, Conservation of Resources, Role of Women, War Industries Board, Liberty Bonds & Victory Gardens
ROARING 20S ECONOMY Nation's wealth more than doubled, chain stores opened, lower prices for goods, growth in consumer goods, and the stock market boomed (Bull Market)
BULL MARKET A market in which share prices are rising, encouraging buying
BUYING ON CREDIT Allowed people to buy now and pay later
ROARING 20S FADS Flag pole sitting, gold fish eating contests, and puzzles
HARLEM RENAISSANCE Place in NY that has become the largest black community and celebrated a number of African American people and culture. They protested discrimination.
HARLEM RENAISSANCE - KEY PEOPLE Langston Huges (poet), Zara Neale Hurston (writer), Louis Armstrong (Jazz musician), Duke Ellington (Pianist & composer), & Bessie Smith (Singer)
GREAT DEPRESSION CAUSES Republican Economic Policies, Real Estate & Stock Speculation, Stock Market Crash ("Black Thursday"), Bank Failures, Overproduction, & Decline of Farming Industry
HERBERT HOOVER Republican who felt the government should be less involved (Laissez Faire)
FRANKLIN D ROOSEVELT Democrat who felt the government should be more involved
GREAT DEPRESSION - EFFECTS Unemployment, Homelessness in cities, & Homelessness for farmers (Dust Bowl, Migrant farmers)
NEW DEAL PROGRAM EXAMPLES AAA (Relief), TVA (Recovery), CCC (Recovery), FHA (Reform), SEC (Reform), FLSA (Reform), SSA (Reform), & FDIC (Reform)
NEW DEAL PRO'S Governments responsibility to get involved in crisis, programs are necessary to help the country get through the Great Depression, Government has a responsibility to use it's power to help all of it's citizens & eased the suffering of the Great Depression
NEW DEAL CON'S Government intruded on people's lives, Created a new national debt, policies favored businesses and the wealthy, & spent a lot of money & did not achieve it's major goal.
22ND AMENDMENT Says that a president can only serve for two (2) terms.
HOLOCAUST The US government could have done a lot more; Roosevelt could have made the war refugee board earlier; US planes could have boomed the camps; Adolf Hitler (European War)
NUREMBERG TRIALS Said people were responsible for their actions during the war. (Global War)
ATOMIC BOMBS On Hiroshima & Nagasaki; Saved US soldiers lives & Japan was destroying American ships (Arguments in Favor); Japan was close to surrendering & US was killing civilians (Pacific War)
UNITED NATIONS An intergovernmental organization established on 24 October 1945 to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was created following the Second World War to prevent
COLD WAR War which the US tried to contain communism against the Russians (1945-1991)
CONTAINMENT Trying to keep communism in the parts of the world that it was in and try to prevent it from spreading to other countries.
COMMUNISM A form of economy which in theory everyone will have the same amount of money and be equal
TRUMAN DOCTRINE US provided European countries not under communism military and economic support
MARSHALL PLAN US provided European countries onto under communism military and economic support
NATO An alliance with non-communist countries to contain communism from spreading
DETENTE Eased the tensions between the US and the USSR (Richard Nixon)
WHO RESOLVED 2000 ELECTION? The US Supreme Court intervened in the recount and declared George W. Bush the winner.
AFRICAN AMERICAN INEQUALITIES Segregation in schools, buses, etc, Slavery, Unequal rights, & Jim Crow Laws
METHODS USED TO RESOLVE AFRICAN AMERICAN INEQUALITIES Protests, Passing of Laws, 24th Amendment, Civil Disobedience (bus boycott, sit-ins, Freedom Riders, & Brown vs. Board of Ed)
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR Philosophy of nonviolent resistance. The protest he led in Birmingham, Ala., in 1963 brought him worldwide attention. He spearheaded the Aug., 1963, March on Washington, which brought together more than 200,000 people. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
BROWN VS. BOARD OF EDUCATION Supreme Ct unanimously agreed that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that sanctioned "separate but equal" segregation of the races, ruling that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
ROSA PARKS Refused to give up her seat at the front of the "colored section" of a bus to a white passenger, defying a southern custom of the time.
I HAD A DREAM SPEECH Speaking of an America where his children "will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character."
24TH AMENDMENT Abolishes the poll tax, which originally had been instituted in 11 southern states after Reconstruction to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote.
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin. The law also provides the federal government with the powers to enforce desegregation. President Johnson
MALCOLM X Black nationalist and founder of the Organization of Afro-American Unity, is shot to death. It is believed the assailants are members of the Black Muslim faith, which Malcolm had recently abandoned in favor of orthodox Islam.
VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 Making it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote. Literacy tests, poll taxes, and other such requirements that were used to restrict black voting are made illegal.
EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Enforces affirmative action for the first time. It requires government contractors to "take affirmative action" toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment. President Johnson
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9981 "It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." Truman
KOREAN WAR GOALS To stop the spread of communism
KOREAN WAR AFTER WWII Japan controlled Korea after WWII; USSR supported North Korea and the US supported South Korea
KOREAN WAR RESULTS Ended at the 38th parallel. After both sides pushed back and forth, they both wound up with the same amount of land from when they first began.
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS REASON USSR was putting nuclear missiles in Cuba
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS RESULTS USSR withdrew their missiles from Cuba and US withdrew their missiles from Turkey
GLASNOT 1985 - A policy of speaking openly & honestly. Allowed open criticism of government; allowed new political parties to form; East European countries now began to demand change; Berlin Wall came down in 1989
GLASNOT LEADER(S) Mikhail Gorbachev
FALL OF THE USSR 1991-Unrest among 120 ethnic groups in 14 Soviet Republics; demanded self-rule; Gorbachev supported move toward democracy.; Gorbachev held captive; Yeltsin & other reformers stopped the plotters, Gorbachev resigned & Soviet Union ceased to exist
GEORGE H.W. BUSH Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm); Economy - recession (huge federal debt); Promised "no new taxes"; One-term president (R) (1989-1993)
RONALD REAGAN Deregulation (Less Government); Tax Cuts to businesses; Increased spending on defense (increased federal debt); Iran-Contra Scandal (arranged for sale of weapons to Iran if hostages were released); Improved Soviet relations; INF Treaty; 1981-1989 (R)
INTERMEDIATE NUCLEAR FORCE (INF) TREATY A treaty which the US and the USSR agreed to get rid of short range and medium range missiles. 1989 - withdrew from Afghanistan.
PERSIAN GULF WAR Iraq's dictator (Saddam Hussein), invaded oil-rich country of Kuwait; US coalition forces successfully push back Iraq in 6 weeks
BILL CLINTON Balance budget (succeeded by cutting spending & raised taxes on wealthy Americans); Strong Economy; NAFTA (US, Canada & Mexico eliminated trade barriers); Scandals & Impeachments (impeached but not removed from office); 1993-2001 (D)
GEORGE W BUSH 9/11 (Osama Bin Laden & terrorist group, Al Qaeda, organized attacks on the US); Patriot Act (gave govt new powers to investigate potential acts of terror); Dept of Homeland Security (new agency created); Iraq War; Hurricane Katrina; 2001-2009 (R)
IRAQ WAR Fear that terrorist groups in Iraq had weapons of mass destruction; US quickly defeated Iraqi army; Saddam Hussein captured and executed
BARACK OBAMA First African American President; Great Recession (poor economy); Goal to end the war in Iraq; Affordable Care Act ("ObamaCare") - guaranteed health insurance; 2009 - present (D)
Created by: desilva13
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