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Infectious Diseases

Terminology for Midterm

A disease or infectious agent that is habitually present in a community, geographical area, or population group. Endemic
The occurrence of a disease clearly in excess of normal expectancy. Epidemic
An epidemic that spans a wide geographical area. Pandemic
The occurrence of death in a population? Mortality
The occurrence of an illness or illnesses in a population. Morbidity
Something in the environment that may cause or increase the risk of an adverse health outcome. Exposure
An exposure that is associated with a disease, morbidity, mortality, or adverse health outcome. Risk factor
The number of new cases in a defined population over a defined period of time. Incidence
This is the total number of cases existing in a defined population at a specific time. Prevalence
Expresses the probability that the observed result could have occurred by chance alone. P-Value
p value of 0.05 means what? 5% of the results could be due to chance
Something other than what was being evaluated caused the results. Confounding
Range of values within which the "True Value" falls in. Confidence interval
Any systematic error in the design, conduct, or analysis of a study that results in a mistaken estimate of an exposure's effect on the risk of disease. Bias
The capacity of the agent to enter and multiple in a susceptible host (measured by the secondary attack rate) Infectivity
The capacity of the agent to cause disease in the infected host (measured by the proportion of infected individuals with clinical manifestations) Pathogenicity
The severity of the disease (measured by the proportion of the total cases that are severe or, if the disease is fatal, the case fatality rate) Virulence
The capacity of the agent to produce a toxin. Toxigenicity
The ability of the agent to survive adverse environmental conditions Resistance
The ability of the agent to induce antibody production in the host Antigenicity
The ability to produce specific, long-lasting immunity Immunogenicity
Clinical symptoms have not appeared but disease could still be transmitted Inapparent (asymptomatic) infection
The time interval between exposure and appearance of the first signs and symptoms. Incubation period
The infectious agent may multiply on the host without causing disease Colonization
Created by: 1277880004