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History Ch. 31-32
Crisis, Conservatives, Ch. 31-32
|Describes the dual conditions of a stagnating economy and inflationary pressures.
|What were the causes of stagflation in the early 1970's?
|Recession and inflation happening at the same time.
|What caused Nixon to resign?
|He was charged with obstructing justice in the cover-up of the Watergate break-in, misuse of power, and refusing to comply with House subpoenas.
|How did the Supreme Court rule on executive privilege in US vs. Nixon?
|They rejected Nixon's claim that the tapes fell under the principle of executive privilege and ordered Nixon to turn them over.
|What is amnesty?
|General pardon for certain crimes. President Carter granted amnesty to Americans who fled the draft to avoid going to war.
|Why did Carter's granting of amnesty to draft evaders anger some Americans?
|The war remained an emotional issue, and many Americans not ready to forgive those who had refused to fight in Vietnam.
|What is the developing world?
|Countries that are less economically advanced than developed countries such as the US.
|Nixon used the term "silent majority". What does it mean?
|A significant number of Americans who supported his policies but chose not to "shout" or demonstrate to express their views.
|What does OPEC stand for?
|Organization of Petroleum Exporting Counties
|What is affirmative action?
|Policy that gives special consideration to women and minorities to make up for past discrimination.
|What was Watergate?
|Political scandal involving illegal activities that ultimately led to the resignation of Pres. Nixon in 1974.
|What is the Twenty-fifth Amendment?
|Deals with presidential succession, vice presidential vacancy , and presidential inability. Constitutional amendment ratified in 1967.
|Explain the term "executive privilege".
|Idea that the President has the right to keep certain information confidential.
|What did the OPEC do?
|Group of counties which sell oil to other nations and cooperate to regulate the price and supply of oil.
|What was the goal of Nixon's "new federalism"?
|To change flow of power, money, and resources. He wanted Washington to share revenue with the States and give the States control of their programs.
|What was "southern strategy"?
|Tactic of the Republican party for winning presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of southern states.
|Explain the Turmoil over busing during Nixon's presidency.
|Nixon "froze" the court-ordered busing to please southern voters.
|In what way did Nixon appear to send mixed messages about civil rights?
|Nixon gave more power and money to States, but expanded the Government. He froze busing, but expanded laws on affirmative action.
|What were some causes of Watergate?
|Break-in at Democratic Party headquarters, Senate investigation found five men from Nixon's office guilty for trying to "bug", and Reporters revealed they had an insider (FBI agent) who could confirm that Nixon was involved in the break-in.
|Who was Gerald Ford?
|He became President when Nixon resigned. He also pardoned Nixon.
|What does pardon mean?
|Official forgiveness of a crime and its punishment.
|Who is Jimmy Carter?
|Born again Christian who won the 1976 election for President.
|Explain what Christian fundamentalist means.
|People who believe in a strict, literal interpretation of the Bible as the foundation of the Christian faith.
|Ministers who preached on television to gain larger audiences.
|What were the Helsinki Accords?
|Agreement made among the US, Canada, and European nations including the Soviet Union, in which all nations agreed to support human rights.
|Define human rights
|Basic rights automatically held by every human being, including religious freedom, education, and equality.
|What does SALT II stand for?
|Proposed agreement to limit certain types of nuclear arms production; but never ratified by the US Senate.
|Define boat people
|Refugees who leave their country by boat.
|What are sanctions?
|What are the Camp David Accords?
|Agreement brokered by Carter that made a peace treaty between the Egypt and Israel.
|What were some of the forces that helped the Republican Party grow during the 1970's?
|The religious boost, the poor economy, and white southerners switched to Republican after migration workers moved to the South.
|How did the seizure of the US Embassy by Iranian students affect American's view of the world?
|Nuclear war was no longer the only threat to the US.
|What is a liberal?
|A person who tends to support government intervention to help the needy and favor laws protecting the rights of women and minorities.
|What is a conservative?
|Person who tends to support limited government involvement in the economy, community help for the needy, and traditional values.
|What does the term "new right" mean?
|Political movement supported by reinvigorated conservative groups in the latter half of the twentieth century.
|Define unfunded mandate
|Program or action required but not paid for the federal government.
|What is the "moral majority"?
|Political organization established by Rev. Jerry Falwell in 1979 to advance religious goals.
|Who was Ronald Reagan?
|A former actor and California governor who beat Carter in the Presidential election of 1980.
|What did Reagan promise to do if elected?
|That Americans would be "better off" than they were with Carter as President.
|Define supply-side economics
|economic theory that held that the government should increase the supply of labor and goods to achieve long-term growth.
|reduction or removal of government controls over an industry.
|Define budget deficit
|shortfall between the amount of money spent and the amount taken in by the federal government.
|What does "national debt" mean?
|Total amount of money that the federal government owes to the owners of government bonds.
|Explain the Savings and Loan Crisis.
|The failure of about 1,000 savings and loan banks as a result of risky business practices.
|Who is Sandra Day O'Connor?
|Reagan appointed Judge on the Supreme Court. First woman Justice and a moderate conservative.
|Who is George H.W. Bush?
|Reagan's VP who became President in 1988.
|What is a voucher?
|Certificate or document that can be used as money.
|What is AIDS?
|The last stage of HIV, it is a disease with no known cure that attacks the immune system. It began spreading in the 1980's.
|What did Reagan famously say to the Soviet Union's President Gorbachev in a speech about peace and reform?
|"Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate...tear down this wall"
|What is the SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative)?
|Reagan's plan to develop innovative defenses to guard the US against nuclear missile attacks. Nicknamed "Star Wars".
|Who were considered "Contras"?
|Anticommunist counterrevolutionaries who opposed the Sandinista government in Nicaragua in 1980's.
|Who did Reagan aid to weaken the Soviet Union?
|An anti-communist group called the Contras.
|Who was Mikhail Gorbachev?
|President of the Soviet Union who wanted reform.
|What did Reagan do to help end the Cold War (communism)?
|He aimed his policies at toppling communist nations, built nuclear missile systems, built up the American military, funded covert operations against Soviet troops and allies around the globe.
|What was the Iran-Contra affair?
|Political scandal under Pres. Reagan involving the use of money from secret arms sales to Iran to illegally support the contras in Nicaragua.
|What was Tiananmen Square?
|Site in Beijing where Chinese students' protested and were killed and imprisoned by the Chinese government in 1989.
|What is the apartheid?
|Political system of strict segregation by race in South Africa.
|Who was Saddam Hussein?
|Iraq's dictator. He invaded Kuwait to take over Kuwait's rich oil deposits.
|Who was Nelson Mandela?
|The leader of the apartheid movement who was imprisoned in 1962. He was later elected South African leader in 1994.
|What was Operation Desert Storm?
|1991 American led attach on Iraqi forces after Iraq refused to withdraw its troops from Kuwait.
|Who is Colin Powell?
|Joint Chief of Staff for Pres. George H.W. Bush. He helped devise and execute Operation Desert Storm.