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USII - CP Final Exam

CP USII Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
What was the name given to the alliance between Italy, Germany and Japan during WWII? Axis
What did America’s Lend-Lease program consist of? Gave British arms & war materials to fight Axis
Why could the United States’ isolationism before WWII possibly not protect it from attack? After defeating European Allies, the Axis powers would still turn their attention to the US whether or not they isolated themselves.
On what date did the Japanese military attack Pearl Harbor, Hawaii? Dec 7th 1941
Why did the U.S. government intern Japanese-Americans during WWII? Longtime prejudice and fear of sabotage
What was D-Day? Allied invasion of France on June 6th 1944
What did the U.S. strategy of “island hopping” in the Pacific theatre consist of? Attack selected islands and use them for bases to attack the next island; cut off Japanese support
Who were kamikaze pilots and what were they trained to do? Japanese suicide pilots who flew directly into US navel ships to sink them.
Which nation dropped atomic bombs in 1945, and for what reason? US dropped A-bombs on Japanese to save American lives and end the war.
What were the Nuremberg Trials? War crimes trial of the Nazis
Why did the U.S. grant military and economic aid to European nations after WWII? To help the countries recover from war and stop the spread of communism
What was the Marshall Plan, and why did Truman’s administration decide to put it in place? $13 billion in aid to war torn European nations to encourage them to turn to the US for security instead of the USSR
What is the similarity of purpose of the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and the Eisenhower Doctrine? All were part of the policy of containment to stop the spread of communism
What was the most important foreign policy goal of the U.S. during the Cold War? Stop the spread of communism
What was the main reason President Truman dismissed General MacArthur over the Korean conflict? MacArthur was insubordinate when he challenged the President's (civilian control) of the military.
How did the Korean conflict end? At the same place it began--38th parallel
What was the G.I. Bill and what did it provide for veterans? Assistance for returning soldiers that provided low cost mortgages, college scholarships, unemployment
What were Levittowns? Pre-fabricated, inexpensive houses that led to the growth of suburbs
At what times in American history did the fear of communism lead to citizen’s suppression of civil liberties? Red Scares after WWI and WWII
Why would many believe that Senator Joseph McCarthy went too far in his hunt for communists? McCarthy ignored the true principles of America which were the right to free speech and thought. He had no evidence and engaged in character assassination.
What major action by the Soviet Union in 1957 led to the passage by the U.S. of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA)? Soviet launch of the first satellite in space--Sputnik
What is the domino theory presented by the Eisenhower administration? If one nation fell to communism so would the surrounding nations
How did the Kennedy administration approach foreign policy in the early 1960s? With strength and determination
Why did Kennedy order a naval blockade of Cuba in 1962? Soviets place nuclear missile sites in Cuba
What Supreme Court decision was Eisenhower enforcing when he sent federal troops to desegregate a school in Little Rock, Arkansas? Brown v Board of Education of Topeka KS
What do the terms de jure, and de facto, mean when it comes to segregation? Where were each primarily found in the U.S.? De Jure--segregation by law--Jim Crow laws (South) De Facto--segregation by practice or tradition (North)
What were the most important beliefs and actions of Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.? Non-violence protest, March on Washington, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize
What is the SCLC, and how did the organization help to get major civil rights legislation passed? Multi-racial organization of college students that challenged the Jim Crow laws through non-violent protest
What were the core beliefs of Malcolm X while he was a member of the Nation of Islam? nonviolence is ineffective, blacks and whites should be separate, whites are racist & evil
What event changed Malcolm X’s racial and religious views? a pilgrimage to Mecca
What were major goals of the Black Panther Party? Black Nationalism-taking charge of politics and businesses in their own communities, end to police brutality, providing social services such as free breakfast, transportation for seniors, and neighborhood watch
What was the goal of President Johnson’s Great Society programs? Antipoverty reforms and civil rights legislation
What act of Congress granted President Johnson power to build up military presence in the Vietnam conflict? Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
What was the My Lai Massacre of 1968? US soldiers murdered and brutalized Vietnamese civilians
What are reasons why the United States did not win the Vietnam War? US never understood Vietnamese history or nationalism, US was worn down by a long divisive war, US sided with an unpopular and corrupt South Vietnam
What two nations did the Nixon Administration bomb outside of Vietnam, which shocked anti-war protestors? Laos and Cambodia
Who designed the Vietnam Memorial, why was it controversial, and what is its’ significance? Maya Linn, Chinese American woman designed the memorial. People argued about how it should look. It was an important symbol of honor.
What is regarded to be THE major accomplishment of the Nixon administration in terms of foreign policy? Opening and easing foreign relations with China and the Soviet Union
What was the purpose of the War Powers Act of 1973? Limit presidential power to send US troops into combat
What was the lasting significance of the Watergate scandal? Showed the laws of the US were superior to the actions of a president
Why was the Ford administration different than any other U.S. presidency? Neither President nor Vice President had been elected to office
What are some examples of information the United States government may have improperly held from the U.S. public during the 1970s? Pentagon Papers, Vietnam atrocities (My Lai), secret bombing of Cambodia and Laos during Vietnam War, Watergate tapes, assassinations, FBI wiretapping
Since World War II, what has been the primary goal of the U.S. in terms of Arab-Israeli conflict? resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict
What were some of the major problems facing the Carter administration? Revolution in Iran and taking of American hostages, energy shortage, foreign competition hurting American trade, American unemployment
What was the impact of higher prices for imported oil on the U.S. of the 1970s and early 1980s? Increased cost of oil hurt the economy
What are major goals of the more conservative Republican Party since the 1980s? cut federal taxes
What does supply side (trickle down) economics consist of, and which President introduced the concept? If you cut taxes on the wealthy the money will "trickle down" to the poor--Reagan
What impact did the fall of the Berlin Wall have on communism in Europe? It marked the beginning of the end of communism in Eastern Europe
What was the final outcome of the Persian Gulf War in 1991? Kuwait was liberated from Iraq's control
How did the Clinton administration’s economic successes help soften the impact of Clinton’s personal scandals? His high approval ratings for economic conditions outweighed issues over his character
Created by: wohsstudent