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Final Review

Green 7 Visit

Primary Sources autobiography, diary, interview with an eyewitness
Secondary Material textbook, biography, movie made decades later
Peninsula land surrounded by water on three sides
Beringia land bridge believed to be how the first Americans reached the New World
Columbian Exchange the exchange of goods, ideas, foods, language, etc. between Europeans and the Native Americans. This can be both positive and negative.
culture the way people live (food, language, home structure, family structure, music, religion, government, etc.)
embargo ban on trade
Northwest Passage waterway through or around North America that explorers hoped to find. It would be a shortcut to Asia. Explorers never found one.
House of Burgesses the first representative government in the English colonies (Virginia)
tariff tax on foreign goods
debt to owe money
import goods brought in to a country
export goods that are sent out of a country, to be sold
mercantilism economic theory that states that a country wants to acquire as much wealth as possible by having a favorable balance of trace (export more than it imports)
Boston Tea Party 1773 event where colonists showed their displeasure for British taxes by dumping tea in to Boston Harbor
Boston Massacre 1770 event where 5 colonists were killed after British soldiers shot into a crowd of angry colonists
tyranny a government with abuse of power in the eyes of the people
Patriot people who wanted to break away from the King, they desired independence
Loyalist one who wanted to remain with Britain/the King, also known as Tories
writs of assistance law that made it legal for the British government to search for smuggled goods without a specific warrant
Quartering Act law that allowed the British government to house soldiers in the homes of colonists. Colonists did not like this at all.
Proclamation of 1763 law that forbade the movement of colonists west of the Appalachian Mountains
triangular trade trade routes between the English colonies, England and Africa
slave codes laws that limited the rights of African Americans and denied them basic rights
alien a foreigner
sedition writing or saying things that could be considered harmful to the government
unconstitional something that is considered not allowed by the government
boycott to refuse to buy or use services as a form of protest
legislature group of people who make laws
executive branch the branch of government that enforces or carries out the laws
judicial branch the branch of government that interprets the laws or makes sure that laws are fair/constitutional
veto the power of the President to cancel a law proposed by Congress (an example of checks and balances)
compromise when two sides agree to give up some of their demands to reach an agreement
amendment a written change to the Constitution
separation of powers principle that the national government is divided into 3 separate branches, each with their own powers/duties
checks and balances principle of the Constitution that gives the branches the power to watch over the other branches to make sure they aren't abusing their power
popular sovereignty when a state or territory can decide for itself if it will have slavery by voting
Federalism principle of the US Constitution: the national government has certain powers, the states have certain powers and some are shared
neutality not taking sides in other the issues of other countries
Louisiana Purchase 1803 land deal that doubled the size of the United States for $15 million. Gave the US complete control of the Mississippi River
Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court case that gave the Supreme Court the right of judicial review
impressment kidnapping of citizens of another country to serve in the military, cause of the War of 1812
Industrial Revolution time period when machines began to replace hand tools, the rise of factories and an increase in manufactured goods
Erie Canal man-made waterway that increased trade in New York, made transporting goods cheaper and easier, led to increased industrialization and population growth in NY
cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney, made the cotton cleaning process faster, led to a growth in slavery
Sectionalism pride for one's section of the country (ie North vs. South)
Nationalism pride for one's country
Manifest Destiny The US's belief that it was our god-given right to expand from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
abolitionist one who wants to end slavery (Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Tubman, John Brown, Solomon Northup, The Grimke Sisters, Sojourner Truth)
Underground Railroad series of secret hiding spots to help slaves get to the North and gain freedom.
secede to leave, as in to leave the Union
Confederate States of America the country created by the South after they seceded, the Union's opponent in the Civil War
Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy
Electoral College special voters who decide who becomes President of the United States, based on the popular vote
Roanoke The name for the failed English colony in the 1580s off the coast of North Carolina
Puritans 3. The group of religious settlers led by John Winthrop, wanted to purify, or reform, the Church of England
Sons of Liberty 4. A secret group of colonial men who joined together to protest the Stamp Act and protect colonial liberties
Intolerable Acts Laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Boston Tea Party
New Jersey Plan The plan proposed by William Paterson, called for three branches of government and a one house legislature in which each state would get one vote
Antifederalists People who opposed the Constitution and a strong national government
immigrant A person who enters another country in order to settle there
abolitionist People who wanted to completely end slavery in the United States
Breadbasket Colonies 12. The nickname used to describe the Middle Colonies because they were known for growing wheat, barley and rye
melting pot nickname for an area with great diversity
Thomas Jefferson Writer of the Declaration of Independence
538 The number of electoral votes in the United States
quartering Another word for housing, such as the housing of troops
cotton An important crop grown in the South in the 1800s
Jamestown Established in 1607, the first permanent English settlement in North America
Quakers Protestant reformers who believe in the equality of all people, located mostly in Pennsylvania
Townshend Act Laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead and tea
Virginia Plan The plan proposed by Edmund Randolph and James Madison, called for three branches of government and a two house legislature with representation in both based on population
Another name for the Great Compromise Connecticut Plan
Federalists People who supported the Constitution and a strong federal government such as James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay
Missouri Compromise The agreement proposed in 1819 that would keep the number of free states and slave states equal and would set up the 36°30’ line, allowing slavery south of the line and not allowing slavery north of the line
Incas The Native American civilization in South America, conquered by Francisco Pizarro
Treaty of Paris (1783) The peace treaty between the United States and Britain that recognized the United States as an independent nation
Turning Point in the American Revolution Battle of Saratoga
Final Battle of the American Revolution Battle of Yorktown
Second Amendment amendment that gives Americans the right to bear arms
Tariff of Abominations The extremely high tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North
The Great Compromiser Henry Clay
Kansas-Nebraska Act The law that established territories of Nebraska and Kansas and gave the settlers the right of popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery
Bleeding Kansas Nickname for Kansas after all the bloodshed after the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Middle Passage The brutal trip from Africa to the Americas for slaves
Olive Branch Petition The peace petition sent to King George by colonial delegates after the battles of Lexington and Concord
bicameral two houses
unicameral one house
Senate The upper house of the legislative branch
House of Representatives the lower house of the legislative branch
Middle Colonies The name for the section of colonies including New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware
New England Colonies New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut
Southern Colonies Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Common Sense The pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to persuade people to support the American struggle for independence
Valley Forge site of the horrible winter for American soldiers during the American Revolution. Many soldiers deserted, died or suffered.
4th Amendment Protects the people from unreasonable search and seizure
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln’s 1863 declaration freeing slaves in the Confederacy
Sugar Act Tax on sugar and molasses
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Stamp Act tax on newspapers, playing cards, diplomas, dice, etc.
3/5 Compromise agreement at the Constitutional convention to determine how slaves would be counted for population and taxation
elastic clause Part of the Constitution that gives the government the right to make laws “necessary and proper” to carry out its specific powers and functions
Compromise of 1850 Agreement by which California joined the Union as a free state and a strict fugitive slave law was passed
The three goals of Spanish conquistadors God, Gold and Glory
1st Amendment protects our freedom of religion, assembly, speech, press and petition
Monroe Doctrine Foreign policy statement warning European nations not to interfere in Latin America
49ers Name for people who rushed to California for gold
indentured servant A person who agreed to work without wages for a period of time in exchange for passage to the colonies
Navigation Acts Series of English laws in the 1650s that regulated trade between England and its colonies
Created by: mrdowling24
Popular U.S. History sets




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