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EML 433 Lecture 2

Systems of Meaning

Language is fundamental to how we structure our ......... and communicate our understandings . thinking
Social ............ is the theory that we 'construct' meaning from our experiences. constructivism?
The way .............. is used in the classroom will be critical in facilitating learning and in determining the type of learning.’ language
Cambourne's conditions of learning (8) Immersion, demonstration, expectation, responsibility, use, approximation, response.
Learning is hard to learn when....? Artificial, no social value, no purpose, it's nonsense, dull and uninteresting, learner is powerless, it's irrelevant
What sort of environment do we need to create for learning to read and write? An environment where students will want to read and write, select their reading material, to ‘own’ their writing. Emmitt et al (2007)
What is a silent and orderly classroom? Not an environment that encourages students to want to read and write. Emmitt et al (2007)
Phonemic Awareness The awareness that spoken language consists of a sequence of sounds. (phonemes)
Phonemes The smallest units of speech.
Graphemes Small units of speech correspond to letters of the alphabet.
What is the main component of phonological awareness? Phonemic awareness.
Awareness of phonemes hugely assists in what? (Ellery) Students; predictive power.
How much difference does Phonemic awareness make? As high as 50% difference in reading proficiency by year 1.
What does Phonemic awareness instruction require? Much teacher modelling and then student application, before independent application.
What does phonemic awareness instruction look like? (3) (Yopp) 1) Child appropriate (songs, change, nursery rhymes) 2) Deliberate and purposeful 3) Only one part of a much broader literacy program.
How do rhyming words help phonemic awareness? Provides opportunity to begin developing awareness of sounds.
In which order should you plan to teach rhyming? From larger to smaller units of sound. a) rhyme in text (fox in socks) b) syllables (to-day) c) onset & rime (d-ay) d) phonemes (d-/a)
How much time should be given to phonemic awareness instruction? Depends on children’s needs and quality of the instruction.
By whom and when were miscue inventories invented? Goodman in 1972.
Marie Clay's approach is used in what program? Reading Recovery.
Reading is .....? (Harris) Understanding written text.
Comprehension is....? Constructing a meaningful message inside their heads.
Features of observational records (6) Not theory specific, research based, standardised over diff. subjects, objective over recorders, reliable over time, easy to admin & mark.
What are running records? A simple standardised method of recording reading behaviours.
What are running records used for? To guide teaching by providing immediate data and evidence. Assess difficulty, track progress, make comparisons across learners.
What does √ indicate? The word was read accurately.
What does and underlined word indicate? The word above the line was substituted for the book's text.
What does M indicate? Meaning or semantic cue was used.
What does S indicate? Syntax or grammatical cue used.
What does V indicate? Grapho-phonic or visual cue used.
If teachers are trained in Running Records carefully what will happen to their records? It will ensure that behaviour records will look the same even though teacher interpretations might differ. Clay (2002)
What are interpretations of running records heavily weighted on? The theoretical view the teacher already holds. Clay (2002)
Created by: Katellord



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