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Fisher US History

US History Regents Review Full Year

TermDefinition
A representative form of government where citizens elect their leaders and lawmakers. Democracy
Document written by the Second Continental Congress to inform England that the American colonies intended to become independent. Approved July 4, 1776. Declaration of Independence
1775-1781 War between England and the United States to gain US freedom from British colonialism. Revolutionary War
First written plan of government for the US. Articles of Confederation
Second written plan of government for the US. Still in place today with 27 amendments added. Constitution
Term for the separation of government power into levels with the national government being the most powerful level, then states, then governments. Federalism
Term for dividing the powers of government into three equal branches. Separation of powers
Branch of government that makes laws. Legislative
Branch of government that enforces laws. Executive
Branch of government that interprets laws. Judicial
Head of the Executive Branch. President
Highest court in the Judicial Branch. Supreme Court
Common name for the Legislative Branch. Congress
Branch of Congress which has two law makers from every state. Senate
Branch of Congress where the number of lawmakers per state depends on the state's population. House of Representatives
Population count done every ten years for the purpose of determining representation of states in the House of Representatives. Census
System used to ensure that no one branch of government becomes too powerful. Branches limit each other's powers. Checks and balances
Right of the people to rule themselves. Popular Sovereignty
Powers specifically given to each branch as written in the Constitution. Delegated powers
Powers given only to the states. Reserved powers
Powers not written in the Constitution but used by each branch, often due to a precedent being set. Implied powers
Nickname used for the flexible power of the Legislative Branch to make whatever laws are "necessary and proper" Elastic clause
Role of the President when acting as head of all US military. Commander in Chief
Role of the President when enforcing laws and issuing executive orders. Chief Executive
Process used to elect the President. Electoral college
Job of the Supreme Court to decide if a law is unconstitutional. Judicial Review
1803 Court case when the Supreme Court first practiced Judicial Review. Marbury v Madison
Length of term of office for a Supreme Court judge. Life
Compromise made during the writing of the Constitution to determine how states would be represented in Congress. Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
1787 Compromise to determine how slaves would be counted in the census used to determine states' representation in the House of Representatives. Three-Fifths Compromise
Group of people who favored ratifying the Constitution as it was written with a strong central government. Federalists
Group of people who opposed ratifying the Constitution as it was written, fearing central government was too strong and would take away people's rights. Anti-Federalists
Series of papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison encouraging ratification of the Constitution. Federalist Essays
Name for the first 10 amdendments added to the Constitution to protect people's rights. Bill of Rights
1823 US foreign policy warning European nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere and not try to re-establish colonies. Monroe Doctrine
The belief that the borders of America should extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Manifest Destiny
Law passed to encourage settling of the West by offering 160 acres free to settlers willing to farm the land for 5 years. Homestead Act
1830 Act forcing Native Americans to give up their land and move west of the Mississippi River. Indian Removal Act
1831 Supreme Court case decision that the court did not have jurisdiction over cases involving Indian nations so it could not be heard. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1832 Supreme Court case decision that people did NOT have to have a license to live on a reservation. Georgia ignored the ruling. Worcester v. Georgia
Lands set aside for the sole use of Native Americans Reservations
1887 law passed to attempt to "Americanize" native Americans by offering them land and American citizenship in exchange for abandoning their tribal life. Dawes Act
Sense of pride in and belonging to your country. Nationalism
Sense of loyalty to the part of the country where you live. Sectionalism or Regionalism
Major issue that caused sectionalism before the Civil War. Slavery
1820 Compromise that banned slavery in the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase. Missouri Compromise
Compromise that admitted California as a free state and allowed residents of New Mexico and Arizona to decide the issue of slavery based on popular sovereignty. Compromise of 1850
1854 Act that overturned Missouri Compromise and allowed citizens of Kansas and Nebraska to decide the issue of slavery based on popular sovereignty. Kansas-Nebraska Act
Violent confrontations that occured when pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups went to Kansas to vote on the issue of slavery. Bleeding Kansas
1857 Supreme Court case decision that African Americans were not citizens and not protected by the Constitution. Dred Scott v. Sandford
Slave who appealed to the Supreme Court for freedom after living with his owners in areas where slavery was illegal. Dred Scott
Abolitionist who led a raid on a federal arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia in 1859 order to start a slave rising. John Brown
1861-1865 war between the northern states (Union) and the southern states (Confederacy) after several slave states seceded. Civil War
1863 document signed by President Lincoln freeing slaves who lived in the Confederate states. Emancipation Proclamation
People who are opposed to slavery. Abolitionists
1865 amendment that ended slavery. Thirteenth amendment
1865-1877 period of time after the Civil War focused on reuniting the country and strengthening the Union. Reconstruction
President of the US during the Civil War. Lincoln
People who wanted to punish the South after the Civil War. Radical Republicans
Laws restricting the freedom of freed slaves after the Civil War and the passage of the 13th amendment. Black Codes
Farming system in the South after the Civil War where blacks would live on and farm land owned by whites in exchange for a portion of the crops. Sharecropping or Tenant Farming
Forgiveness (Lincoln followed this ideal when he chose to forgive the South for seceding from the Union and causing the Civil War). Amnesty
1868 amendment which made blacks citizens and guaranteed due process and equal protection under the law for all citizens. Fourteenth amendment
1870 amendment granting eligible black males the right to vote. Fifteenth amendment
Tests used to limit blacks right to vote by requiring proof of their ability to read and write. Literacy tests
Taxes charged to voters in an attempt to restrict blacks from voting. Poll taxes
Clause allowing white men to vote even if they were illiterate and could not pay the poll tax as long as their ancestors were legally able to vote. Grandfather clause
Laws designed to segregate blacks from whites in the south. Jim Crow Laws
1896 court case upholding segregation in public places as long as facilities were "seperate but equal". Plessy v. Ferguson
Growth of industry. Industrialization
Growth of cities. Urbanization
Belief that monopolies deserved to exist because their owners were better businessmen than the competitors they shut down. Social Darwinism
Idea that government should not interfere with business practices. Laissez-faire
Wealthy monopolist who owned the Standard Oil Company. John D. Rockefeller
Belief in the superiority of one's own culture/citizenship, causing negative reactions and hostility towards immigrants. Nativism
Ability to adapt and fit in to a new culture. Assimilation
1882 law passed to restrict immigration from China. Chinese Exclusion Act
1907 law passed to restrict immigration from Japan. Gentleman's Agreement
1921 law designed to severely limit immigration after WWI. Emergency Quota Act
1924 law designed to limit immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe and favor immigrants from Northern and Western Europe. National Origins Act
April-July 1898 conflict between US and Spain over control of Cuba. Spanish American War
Newspaper reporting designed to exaggerate violence in Cuba in an attempt to convince Americans that action should be taken. Yellow journalism
American ship which sank in the Havana harbor of Cuba, Spain blamed for the sinking of this ship which increased American belief in the necessity of attacking the Spanish in Cuba. USS Maine
1899 policy designed to allow US trade access to China. Open Door Policy
Areas of China where countries had exclusive trading rights. Spheres of Influence
1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine which changed US role in Latin America from protector to police presence, greatly resented by Latin American nations. Roosevelt Corollary
President Teddy Roosevelt's policy threatening US intervention in belligerant Latin American nations. Big Stick Policy
Large corporations which eliminated all competition. Monopolies or Trusts
People who exposed the corruption of monopolies and government through books, articles, photographs, etc. Muckrakers
President known for being a trustbuster and an environmental conservationist during the Progressive Era. Teddy Roosevelt
Act which outlawed any form of business that limited interstate trade. Sherman Anti-trust Act
Act which outlawed any businesses practices that eliminated competition. Clayton Anti-trust Act
Government organization created to enforce anti-trust laws. Federal Trade Commission
Muckraker who wrote "The Jungle" about the meat packing industry and its danger to consumers. Upton Sinclair
Book written by Upton Sinclair to expose the terrible condition of the meat packing industry. The Jungle
Law which requires the accurate labeling of ingredients in food and medicines. Pure Food and Drug Act
Muckraker who took photographs and wrote "How the Other Half Lives" to expose the terrible living conditions of tenement housing. Jacob Riis
Muckraker who exposed the abusive business practices of the Standard Oil Company. Ida Tarbell
The buildup of armed forces in preparation for war before WWI. Militarism
Military agreements between countries who promise to defend each other (provide collective security). Alliances
Pride in one's country. Nationalism
Archduke of Austria-Hungary who was assassinated in 1914, one cause of WWI. Franz Ferdinand
Nickname for the tension between Russia and the Ottoman Empire over control of Serbia and Bulgaria. Balkan Powderkeg
German practice of sinking all ships within a designated area off the coast of Europe without warning or provocation. German unrestricted submarine warfare
Primary reason for US involvement in WWI. Protection of freedom of the seas
US President during WWI who proposed 14 points to reestablish peace after the war. Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson's ideas for peace after WWI. Fourteen Points
1919 Supreme Court case; decision was that free speech can be restricted if it creates a clear and present danger. Schenck v. US
1917 law making it illegal to interfere with the draft. Espionage Act
1918 law making it illegal to say anything disloyal to the US. Sedition Act
Treaty ending WWI. Treaty of Versailles
Peace-keeping organization created after WWI that the United States did NOT join. League of Nations
Country that was blamed in the Treaty of Versailles for causing WWI and made to pay reparation money for damages caused during the war. Germany
Fascist German dictator who came to power after WWI. Hitler
Policy of avoiding involvment in the problems of other nations. Neutrality
Period of time when alcohol was illegal. Prohibition
Movement to end the manufacturing, distribution, sale, and consumption of alcohol. Temperence Movement
1919 amendment which made alcohol illegal. Eighteenth amendment
1933 amendment which repealed Prohibition. Twenty-first amendment
Nickname for the 1920's due to changes in culture, attitude, etc. Roaring Twenties
Cultural movement in New York City led by black authors, musicians, and artists. Harlem Renaissance
Well known Harlem Renaissance author whose writings promoted black pride. Langston Hughes
Civil rights leader who proposed blacks achieve equality with whites through vocations and work effort. Booker T. Washington
Civil rights leader who proposed blacks would achieve equality with whites through higher education. W.E.B. DuBois
Amendment which granted women the right to vote. Nineteenth amendment
Term meaning "right to vote". Suffrage
Nickname for those who worked to achieve the right to vote for women. Suffragettes
Famous suffragettes. Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Fear of communism in the US. Red Scare
1929-1939 worst economic collapse in US history. Great Depression
Investing in high risk stocks. Speculation
Producing too many goods, causing a drop in prices. Overproduction
System where stocks (part ownership of corporations) are bought and sold. Stock Market
President who proposed "Trickle Down" theory to end Great Depression and who supported individual initiative in solving economic crisis. Herbert Hoover
President who proposed a "New Deal" to end the Great Depression. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Supreme Court case declaring FDR's National Recovery Administration unconsitutional. Schechter Poultry Corporation v. US
FDR's plan to add one additional Supreme Court justice for every justice over the age of 70, designed to limit Court's opposition to New Deal policies. Court Packing Plan
1933 Policy designed to improve relations between US and Latin America by reducing intervention and increasing trade. Good Neighbor Policy
Taxes on imports. Tariffs
WWII Military alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan. Axis
Law passed by Congress to sell military supplies to Allied nations at the start of WWII. Cash and Carry Act
Law passed to loan or rent military supplies to Allied nations at the start of WWII. Lend-Lease Act
American naval base in Hawaii bombed by the Japanese December 7, 1941. Pearl Harbor
Type of bombs dropped by US on Japan to end WWI. Atomic
1944 Supreme Court case that decided the relocation of Japanese-Americans was a reasonable action during WWII. Korematsu v. US
1945-1990 conflict between the US and Soviet Union over political differences and actions. Cold War
Communist nation involved in 45 year conflict with US after WWII. Soviet Union
Periods of improved relationships between the US and Soviet Union during the Cold War. Detente
Effort by the US and Soviet Union to build up weapons stockpiles during the Cold War. Arms race
Efforts by the US and Soviet Union to launch satellites to gain control of space. Space Race
First satellite; succesfully launched by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Sputnik
Efforts to prevent the spread of communism. Containment
Containment policy which gave money to Greece and Turkey to help them resist Soviet aggression. Truman Doctrine
Containment policy which gave money to European nations to rebuild after WWII and to assist them in resisting Soviet aggresion. Marshall Plan
Effort by the Soviet Union to block off the city of Berlin to prevent Allied efforts to bring supplies to the people of the city. Berlin Blockade
Fifteen month effort by the US to sustain the people of Berlin by flying over and dropping needed supplies. Berlin Airlift
Mutual defense agreement between the US, Canada, and several European nations. NATO
Military agreement between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations in Eastern Europe. Warsaw Pact
Principle of mutual military assistance. Collective security
1950-1950 Conflict between North and South Korea over the expansion of communism. Korean War
Term for the effort to stop the spread of communism. Containment
Role of the President as head of all armed forces. Commander in Chief
Senator who led a "hunt" for communists in the US after WWII. Joseph McCarthy
House of Representatives committee created to investigate people charged with disloyalty to the US. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Married couple executed for passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Man investigated and sentenced to jail for being a Soviet spy. Alger Hiss
Court case that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson by declaring segregation in schools unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education
Arkansas governor who refused to enforce Brown v. Board of Ed. Supreme Court decision and allow integration. Faubus
Eisenhower's concern that if one Southeast Asian nation fell under the control of communism, they may all fall. Domino Theory
Communist leader of Vietnam 1945-1965. Ho Chi Minh
1964 resolution passed by Congress to allow President Johnson to take all necessary measures to prevent communist takeover of South Vietnam. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1960-1963 President known for promoting civil rights for blacks and world peace efforts through the Peace Corps. John F Kennedy
1961 unsuccessful attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro, communist dictator of Cuba. Bay of Pigs Invasion
1962 Cold War event, Soviet Union built missile silos on the island of Cuba, US demands they be removed. Cuban Missile Crisis
Structure built to divide the city of Berlin between communist East Berlin and democratic West Berlin. Berlin Wall
Supreme Court Chief Justice known for decisions that advanced civil rights. Earl Warren
Supreme Court case making illegally seized evidence inadmissable in court. Mapp v. Ohio
Supreme Court case providing a lawyer for defendants who can't afford one. Gideon v. Wainright
Supreme Court case allowing a suspect to have a lawyer present during questioning. Escobedo v. Illinois
Supreme Court case requiring law enforcement officials to inform suspects of their legal rights before questioning. Miranda v. Arizona
Civil rights leader who advocated acts of civil disobedience in the effort to achieve equal rights for blacks. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Black civil rights leader who opposed integration and encouraged black nationalism. Malcolm X
Refusal of people to ride buses in Montgomery, Alabama after the arrest of Rosa Parks to force bus company to desegragate. Mongtgomery Bus Boycott
Act which banned different voter standards for blacks and whites, discrimination in public places, and discrimination by employers and unions. Civil Rights Act of 1964
Purpose of organizations including NAACP, CORE, SCLC, and SNCC. Promote and protect civil rights for blacks.
Organization of blacks who supported black nationalism and engaged in violent encounters with the police in the 1960's. Black Panthers
Lyndon Johnson's program to combat poverty in the US. Great Society
1973 Supreme Court case legalizing abortion. Roe v. Wade
Farm worker/labor leader/ civil rights activist for Latin Americans who organized the United Farm Workers Union. Cesar Chavez
1990 law passed making it illegal to discriminate against disabled persons. Americans with Disabilities Act
Government organization created to ensure safe, healthy working conditions. OSHA
Government organization created to protect the environment. EPA
Talks held between the US and Soviet Union to limit quantity of nuclear defense weapons. S.A.L.T
"Thawing out" of relations between the US and Soviet Union. Periods of decreased hostility and increased cooperation between the countries. Detente
1972 event involving Richard Nixon in a political scandal and resulting in his resignation. Watergate Scandal
President who resigned because of his role in the Watergate Scandal and the likelhood of his being impeached. Richard Nixon
Vote by the House of Representatives to conduct a trial against a president. Impeachment
1973 law limiting the president's ability to send troops into combat. Law requires president to inform Congress of deployment within 48 hours and requires troops to be returned home within 60 days if approval is not given War Powers Act
1978 peace agreement between Israel and Egypt, facilitated by President Carter. Camp David Accords
1980-1987 Conservative president who was anti-abortion and pro-prayer in school. Ronald Reagan
Nickname for President Reagan's economic plan to reduce taxes and increase military spending. Reaganomics
1986 scandal involving illegal sale of weapons to Iran and use of money from sales to support Contra freedom fighters in Nicaragua. Iran-Contra Affair
Structure torn down in 1989 signalling the symbolic end of the Soviet Union. Berlin Wall
1991 war between UN nations and Iraq over Saddam Hussein's aggression in the Middle East. Persian Gulf War
Organization created in 1992 to increase trade between US, Canada, and Mexico. NAFTA
President impeached in 1998 for lying under oath and obstructing justice related to an affair with a White House intern. Bill Clinton
President who won a controversial election in 2000 by winning the electoral college vote over candidate Al Gore's popular vote victory. George W. Bush
Al Qaeda terrorist who planned the Sept. 11th, 2000 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. Osama bin Laden
Former dictator of Iraq tried and hanged for committing crimes against humanity after his capture by US forces in 2003. Saddam Hussein
Law passed in 2001 by President Bush giving broad powers to government to intercept and obstruct acts of terrorism. Patriot Act
New cabinet department created after Sept. 11th, 2000 to protect the US from future terrorist attacks. Department of Homeland Security
Created by: fisher_lisa