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MCAT Biology #1

Cell Structure

Amino acid composed of an amino group, an acidic carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain; they make up proteins
Chiral there are 4 different substituents attached to the alpha-carbon
Enantiomers non-superimposable mirror images
Proteases enzymes that degrade protein
Two important amino acid modifications hydroxylation and methylation
Physiological pH 6.5-8.0
Zwitterionic having two charges, or dipolar
Ampholytes molecules that can act either as an acid or a base
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation pH = pKa + log([A-]/[HA])
Isoelectric point the pH at which a molecule carries no net electric charge
pI (formula) (pKa1+pKa2)/2
cathode the negative electrode, where positive charges go towards
anode the positive electrode where negative charges towards
electrophoresis a technique of separating amino acids based on isoelectric points
buffer ability to resist changes in pH
peptide linkage an amide bond between amino acids
polypeptide a term used for any length of a polymer of amino acids
oligopeptide 10 or more amino acids linked together
protein 100 or more amino acids linked together, into a functional entity
disulfide bonds cysteine residues that are joined together covalently, through oxidation
alpha helix secondary structures of polypeptides stabilized by hydrogen bonding, and with 3.6 aa per turn, 1.5 angstroms vertical rise per turn, and 100 degrees rotation per turn
beta sheet secondary structure of polypeptides that occurs via hydrogen bonding between strands of polypeptide, connected by beta-turns
heme group a crevice within myoglobin and hemoglobin subunits that can bind to oxygen
primary structure the sequence of amino acids, and the location of disulfide bonds
secondary structure the spatial arrangement of amino acids that are close to one another
tertiary structure the spatial arrangement of amino acids that are far from one another and is determined by the primary structure
quaternary structure the spatial structure of various subunits
enzymes proteins that catalyze reactions in cells
active site or catalytic site the crevice that a substrate come into contact with where it is bound in such a way that the enzyme can do chemistry on it
allosteric site an alternate site on an enzyme where regulation can occur via binding
aldehyde a molecule in which the carbonyl group is terminal
ketone the molecule in which the carbonyl group is internal
reference carbon the chiral carbon in a monosaccharide that is farthest from the carbonyl carbon
pyranose six membered sugar ring
furanose five membered sugar ring
anomer cyclic sugars that differ only in the configuration of the C-1 carbon
anomeric carbon the carbon on a sugar ring that determines the alpha or beta form of the sugar ring
beta sugar rings the hydroxyl group is on the same side (drawn as a ring) as the CH2OH group
alpha sugar rings the hydroxyl group is on the opposite side (drawn as a ring) as the CH2OH group
hemiacetal a half acetal. One of the oxygens is still bonded to a hydrogen.
Hemiketal a half ketal. One of the oxygens is still bonded to a hydrogen.
Tollen’s reagent a reagent used to identify reducing sugars that will precipitate silver if they are present
Benedict’s reagent a reagent used to identify reducing sugars, in which case a brick-red precipitate will form
Sugar with “ide” ending the sugar is not a reducing sugar
Acetal group a fully oxidized aldehyde, where both oxygens are not bound to hydrogens
Ketal group a fully oxidized ketone, where both oxygens are not bound to hydrogens
Saturated fatty acids fatty acids with no double bonds and all single bonds
Unsaturated fatty acids fatty acids with specific double bonds
Triacylglycerol fatty acids esterified to a glycerol backbone
Glycerophosopholipids a glycerol backbone with two fatty acid chains and one phosphoryl group with another molecule attached to it
Sphingolipids lipids derived from amino alcohols
Ceramide the structural reside common to all sphingolipids
Cerebroside a ceramide with a monosaccharide attached to the C-1 carbon
Sphingoglycolipids sphingolipids with sugar attached
Gangliosides ceramide with several sugar residues attached.
Progesterone steroid hormone that prepares the uterine lining for implantation of an ovum, and the maintaining of endometrial lining of the uterus
Cortisol steroid hormone made and secreted from cells in the adrenal gland to increase both glycogen synthesis and gluconeogenesis
Aldosterone steroid hormone that increases readsorption of sodium ions
Testosterone steroid hormone that facilitates sperm maturation and promotes male secondary characteristics
Estradiol steroid hormone the control a number of female characteristics
Nucleotides molecules composed of a nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and phosphoric acid
Purines nitrogenous bases with two rings, adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines nitrogenous bases with one ring, thymine, guanine, uracil
Phosphodiester bond an ester bond with a phosphate group in the middle
Cell cycle the sum of all events that occur between the completion of one cell division and the next
Interphase of cell cycle intermediate phase of cell cycle
G1 phase of cell cycle the first growth phase, where RNA and proteins are actively being synthesized, the centriole pairs separate
S phase of cell cycle synthetic phase, where the DNA is replicated once, and centrioles are replicated
G2 phase of cell cycle second growth phase, where the chromatin begins to condense
Aster starlike structure of microtubules that form during prophase of mitosis
Centrosome the region from which microtubules extend outwards during mitosis
MTOC the region from which microtubules extend outwards during mitosis
Mitotic spindle a structure involved in the separation of the chromosomes during anaphase
Kinetochore a specialized area closely associated with the centromere
Reductive division another name for what happens in meiosis I
Leptotene first part of prophase I in meiosis I where replicated chromosomes have started to condense
Zygotene second part of prophase I in meiosis I where homologous chromosomes begin to pari up logintudinally to prepare for crossing over
Synapsis the overlapping regions of chromosomes during crossing over
Synaptonemal comlex a specialized protine and RNA scaffold that facilitates crossing over
Pachytene the third part of prophase I in meiosis I where crossing over takes place
Diplotene the fourth part of prophase I in meiosis I where the chromosomes begin to pull apart. Human eggs are arrested at this stage during development
Diakinesis the fifth and last part of prophase I in meiosis I where the nuclear envelope breaks down and the homologous chromosomes are moving apart
Micelles spherical strcutures that are formed when enough phospholipids congregate together such that heads are outside and tails are inside
Liposome a lipid bilayer folded back on itself
Lateral diffusion phospholipids exchanging places in a single layer of the membrane
Transverse diffusion phospholipids moving from one lipid plane to another, very rare
Glycolipids membrane lipid attached to a carbohydrate, usually found on the exterior surface of the membrane
Glycoproteins membrane proteins attached with carbohydrates
Uniport transporter protein involved in facilitated diffusion of one type of solute molecule
Symport transporter protein involved in facilitated diffusion of two types of solute molecules going in the same direction
Antiport transporter protein involved in facilitated diffusion of two types of solute molecules going in opposite directions
Permeases protein transporters that allow for the movement of a solute across a membrane
Primary active transport active transport in which the energy source is ATP directly (Na/K pump)
Secondary active transport active transport in which the energy source or diving factor is an ionic gradient (Na/glucose transport)
Endocytosis invagination of a portion of the membrane in which the vesicle travels into the cell
Endosomes vesicles resulting from endocytosis
Pinocytosis endocytosis of liquids
Phagocytosis endocytosis of larger particulate matter
Exocytosis the export of molecules or liquid via vesicles
Nucleoplasm the mixture of chromatin and the aqueous phase of the nucleus
Nucleolus a highly organized region within the nucleus centered around certain chromosomes that are involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis
Signal peptide a short segment of a polypeptide indicating that a ribosome’s destination is to be on the ER
Smooth ER functions synthesis of the majority of cell’s membrane lipids, hydroxylation of toxins, catabolism of glycogen, regulate calcium concentrations
Rough ER functions post-translational modification of polypeptides
Signal sequence a sequence of amino acids at the N-terminus of a polypeptide which binds to an SRP
Signal recognition particle located in the cytoplasm, these direct the ribosome to the ER, and bind to to signal sequence receptors
Signal sequence receptors embedded in the ER membrane, which allow for docking of the SRP, which allows the ribosome to be anchored
Signal peptidase in the ER lumen, and degrades the signal sequence
Golgi apparatus a complex of flattened membraneous sacs called cisternae that are involved in chemical modification of a maturing protein
Glycosylation addition of carbohydrates
Sulfation addition of inorganic sulfates
Proteolysis reducing the size of the protein
Lysosomes vesicles originating from the membrane of the Golgi which contain hydrolytic enzymes to degrade polymers into monomeric subunits
Cocci bacteria spherical-cell bacteria
Bacillus rod-shaped-cell bacteria
Sprilla rigidly-twisted-cell bacteria
Spirochete flexible-twisted-cell bacteria
Inclusion bodies aggregates of organic molecules that facilitate in the prokaryotic cell’s functions (akin to organelles)
Glycolayx bacterial capsule, a polysaccharide layer
Capsid virus with protein shell without nucleic acid inside
Nucleocapsid virus with protein shell with nucleic acid inside
Viral matrix proteins proteins that attach the membrane to the enveloped virus
Hershey and Chase experiment infected E.coli with radiolabelled phosphorus and sulfur.
Anfinsen experiment experiment involving denaturing a ribonuclease with beta-mercapoethanol and 8M, which cleaves disulfide bonds. Enzymatic activity restore after refold. Structure fluctuates but stabilized by other structures.
Created by: ruiyuwu1998
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