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NWHSU ClinPath I Q1

NWHSU Clinical Pathology I Quiz 1 NOT midterm study guide

RBC count XX 3.5-5.5 million/ul
RBC count XY 4.3-5.9 million/ul
Hb XX 14 g/dl +/-2
Hb XY 16 g/dl +/-
Anemia exists for XX when? Hb < 11 g/dl
Anemia exists for XY when? Hb < 13 g/dl
Hematocrit (Hct) for XX 37-47%
Hematocrit (Hct) for XY 40-54%
Mean Corpuscular Volume (aka Mean Cell Volume) 80-100 fl (femtoliters or cubic microns)
Red blood cell Distribution Width (RDW) 11-15% (Can only go up, general early indicator of big problems)
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/cu mm
WBC count 4,500-11,000
Neutrophil % 50-70%
Lymphocytes % 20-40%
Monocytes % 2-10%
Eosinophils % 1-5%
Basophils % 0-1%
Reticulocyte % .5-1.5%
ESR for 20-40 year old male 1-15mm/hour
ESR for 20-40 year old female 1-20 mm/hour
ESR for males NOT 20-40 yoa age/2
ESR for females NOT 20-40 yoa age +10/2
Etiology of macrocytosis Folate or B12 deficiency, chronic liver disease, chronic alcoholism, reticulocytosis, myxedema
Etiology of microcytosis chronic iron deficiency, alpha or beta thalassemia, anemia of chronic disease, sideroblastic anemia
Leukopenia is usually what infection viral
Leukocytosis is usually what infection bacterial
Diagnose: platelet count > 400,000 (Thrombocythemia, aka thrombocytosis) malignancy
Diagnose: platelet count < 70,000 (Thrombocytopenia) immune destruction (e.g. drugs, chemotherapy, ITP [Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura])
Diagnose: Leukoerythroblastosis (presence of both immature WBCs and nucleated RBCs inthe peripheral blood smear) leukemia, polycythemia vera, sever infection
Which hormone originates from the kidney and stimulates bone marrow to make RBCs? Erythropoietin (if patient has kidney disease, they are anemic)
What is a fetus' hemoglobin type? HbF (alpha 2, gamma 2)
What is adult's hemoglobin type? 98% Hb A (alpha 2, beta 2); 2% Hb A2 (alpha 2, delta 2)
What three types of urinalysis are there? physical, chemical, microscopic
What's similarity/difference between diabetes insipidus and mellitus? Similarities: both have diabetes in their name, high urination volume (polyuria). Differences: DI from brain injury, low gravity urine, rare; DM insulin resistant, glycosuria, high gravity
Diagnose: Nitrites in urine (requires four hours in lab to detect) Cystisis (aka Urinary Tract Infection)
Diagnose: glycosuria and ketonuria Diabetes Mellitus
Diagnose: conjugated (water soluble) bilirubin in urine liver disease or extra/or intra hepatic biliary obstruction
Diagnose: increased urine urobilinogen liver disease (liver parenchymal cells aren't metabilizing enough urobilinogen absorbed from intestine
What is the reference range for RBC and WBC per high-power field of microscope RBC's 0-2, WBC's 0-5
In/Decreased wbc's in blood Leukocytosis/Leukopenia
Increased glucose in blood Hyperglycemia
Diagnose: WBC's in urine Pyuria
Diagnose: WBC casts in urine (definite evidence originated in kidney) Acute Pyelonephritis
Diagnose: RBC casts in urine Acute Glomerulonephritis
Patients stage when waxy casts in urine advanced renal failure
Patients stage when fatty casts in urine Nephrotic Sydnrome (end of renal failure)
cast seen in exercisers Hyaline
How many squamous epithelial cells per low-power field indicate contamination of urine 10
Diagnose: suprapubic tenderness accompanied by dysuria, urgency or hesitancy Cystitis
Diagnose: severe pain in the flank, with radiation in the groin uretal distention or irritation by stones, clots, in papillary necrosis
Causes white foam in urine Albumin
Causes yellow foam in urine Bilirubin
Blood in urine Hematuria
Nitrites in urine Nitrituria
Hemoglobin in urine Hemoglobinuria
Diagnose: "When I drink beer my low back hurts." Hodgkin Lymphoma
Binucleated malignant reticulum cell, aka Reed-Sternberg cells Hodgkin Lymphoma
Diagnose: "I have regular intervals of fever, then no fever." (aka Pel-Ebstein fever pattern) Hodgkin Lymphoma
Diagnose: Lymphocytopenia, Anemia, elevated serum alkaline phophatase, elevated ESR Hodgkin Lymphoma
Diagnose: fever of unknown origin, pruritus and lymphadenopathy Hodgkin Lymphoma
Diagnose: elevated RBC, WBC, Platelets, Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase Polycythemia Vera
Diagnose: elevated RBC, WBC, Platelets, NOT ELEVATED Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase Leukemia
Diagnose: anemia, infections (UTI, Pneumonia, etc.), bruising from unknown origin Leukemia
Diagnose: "My hands and feet feel like they're burning and itching like CRAZY!" aka Erythromelalgia and Pruritus Polycythemia Vera
Diagnose: elevated RBC, NOT ELEVATED WBC, Platelets; History states high altitude, chronic lung disease, or smoking Secondary erthrocytosis aka secondary polycythemia
Diagnose: elevated RBC, NOT ELEVATED WBC, Platelets; Urinalysis: cloudy urine; History states NO high altitude, chronic lung disease, or smoking Relative erythrocytosis, aka relative polycythemia, in other words, plasma volume low due to dehydration
Diagnose: splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, fever, anemia, hemorrage, infection leukemia
Diagnose: WBC count 15,000-50,000/cu mm, platelets < 100,000/cu mm, peripheral smear shows lymphoblasts and the child (aka patient) is anemic Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Diagnose: child is not growing, developing (e.g. crawling to walking), or playing; easily bruised, bone and joint pain, fatique, headache, orthopenea (dyspnea, shortness of breath), oliguria (hypouresis, not enough urine) Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Diagnose: child has anemia (low RBC), thrombocytopenia (platelets < 100,000/cu mm), and lymphoblasts Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Diagnose: CBC shows subnormal neutrophils, RBCs, and platelets; elevated WBC, ESR; blood smear shows myeloblasts with Auer Rods Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Diagnose: 70 year old reaches satiety quickly when eating; lyphadenophath, splenomegaly, Hepatomegaly; B cell lymphocytosis (>5000 microliter); blood smear shows "smudge cells" and mature appearing small lymphocytes Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Diagnose: CBC shows WBC 200,000/microliter, elevated eisonophils and basophils, lymphocytosis; Philadelphia chromosome Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Created by: AnatomyMash