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it is the living structural and functional unit that is enclosed by a membrane. cell
process where one cell divides into two new cells. cell division
study of cellular structure and function. cell biology
name and describe the 3 main parts of a cell. 1) plasma membrane - cell's outer surface that separates the cell's internal from external environment. 2) cytoplasm - consists of all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; has cytosol (fluid) and organelles (within the cytoso
what is the functionof plasma membrane? allows some substances to move into and out of the cell but restricts the passage of other substances (selective permeability); water-soluble materials may cross the membrane with the assistance of integral proteins which act as transporters.
it is the fluid inside body cells (cytosol of a cell). intracellular fluid (ICF)
it is the fluid outside body cells. extracellular fluid (ECF)
it is the ECF in the blood vessels. plasma
it is the ECF in the lymphatic vessels. lymph
any material dissolved in a fluid. solute
the fluid in which the material is dissolved. solvent
the amount of a solute in a solution. concentration
difference in concentration between two different areas i.e. ICF and ECF. concentration gradient
process where substance moves from higher concentration area to lower concentration area using its own energy of motion (kinetic energy). passive process (ex: simple diffusion, osmosis)
process where substance moves from low area of concentration to high area of concentration and requires cellular energy in the form of ATP. active process (ex: active transport)
they are tiny membrane sacs. vesicles
type of diffusion where substances diffuse across a membrane in one of two ways: through lipid bilayer or through ion channels formed by proteins. simple diffusion
some substances that cannot diffuse through the lipid bilayer or through ion channels do cross the plasma membrane by this passive process (with the assistance of integrated membrane proteins--transporters); requires a transporter but does not use ATP. facilitated diffusion
a passive process in which there is a net movement of water from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration (or from area of lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration) through lipid bilayer and integral m osmosis
any solution in which cells maintain their normal shape and volume. isotonic solution
a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes (higher concentration of water) than the cystosol. hypotonic solution
a solution with higher concentration of solutes (lower concentration of water) than the cystosol. hypertonic solution
it is the rupture of red blood cells. hemolysis
it is the shrinkage of red blood cells. crenation
an active process in which cellular energy is used to transport substances across the membrane from an area of low to an area of high concentration. active transport process
energy derived from splitting ATP changes the shape of transporter protein. pump
ability of some cells to generate electric signals. action potentials
an active process where movement of vesicles requires energy supplied by ATP. transport in vesicles
type of transport in vesicles where materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane. endocytosis
a type of transport in vesicles where materials move out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle formed inside a cell with the plasma membrane. exocytosis
type of endocytosis where large solid particles like bacteria, virus or aged dead cells are taken in by the cell (cell eating); defense mechanism that helps protect the body from disease. phagocytosis
type of endocytosis where cells take up tiny droplets fo extracellular fluid; takes in any and all solutes dissolved; cell drinking pinocytosis
secretion and liberation of materials from a cell i.e. secretory cells that liberate mucus, hormones, etc. and nerve cells that release neurotransmitters. exocytosis
fluid portion of the cytoplasm that surrounds the organelles; typically it is water plus various dissolved solutes and suspended particles. cytosol
specialized structures inside the cells that have characteristic shapes and specific functions; it has its own unique set of enzymes. organelles
type of organelle that extend throughout the cytosol; a network of protein filaments. cytoskeleton
fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane. microvilli
type of organelle located near the nucleus centrosome
ring-shaped proteins tubulins
short hairlike projections that extend from the surface of the cell cilia
long hairlike projections that extend from the surface of the cell flagella
sites of protein synthesis ribosomes
network of folded membranes that extends throughout the cytoplasm. endoplasmic reticulum
type of ER that extends from the mebrane of nucleus and appears rough because it is studded with ribosomes; factory for synthesizing secretory proteins. rough ER
type of ER that lacks ribosomes and extends from ER to form a network of membranous tubules; detoxify certain drugs. smooth ER
an organelle where synthesized proteins by ribosomes attached to rough ER pass through for processing; modify proteins to form glycoproteins and lipoproteins and they are sorted and packaged. golgi complex
organelles that are membrane-enclosed vesicles with digestive enzymes to break down molecules once it fuses with vesicles formed during endocytosis; can engulf another organelle, digest it, and return to cytosol for reuse. lysosomes
process by which worn-out organelles are digested autophagy
a process by which lysosomal enzymes may destroy the entire cell. autolysis
group of organelles similar in structure to lysosomes but smaller; contain enzymes that can oxidize or remove hydrogen atom; protects cells from toxic effects. peroxisome
barrel-shaped organelles that continue to destroy unneeded, damaged or faulty proteins. proteasomes
site of most ATP production, powerhouses of a cell. mitochondria
spherical or oval structure that is most prominent feature of a cell. nucleus
located within the nucleus are most of cell's hereditary units that control cellular structure. genes
arrangement of nuclear genes chromosomes (ex. human body cells have 46 chromosomes, 23 inherited from each parent)
process whereby cell reproduce themselves cell division
process that produces gametes - sperm and oocyts- cells needed to form organism; reproductive cell division. meiosis
nuclear division where duplicated chromosomes become exactly segregated: one set into each of two separate nuclei. mitosis
name the four stages of mitosis. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
it is a stage where cell replicates its DNA, cell does most of its growing (high metabolic activity). interphase
Created by: practicalnurse



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