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DNA Replication

QuestionAnswer
DNA replication is _______ and ________ bidirectinal and semiconservative
What is one important difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA replication? Prokaryotic DNA replication has one origin
Origin of replication sequences are usually almost exclusively made up of what base pairs? A and T
What is the job of single-stranded DNA-binding protein? It binds to to the single strands in the separated regions to prevent them crom reannelaing so replication enzymes can function. Also protects the strands from nuclease degredation
DNA helicases do what job? Unwind the helix (like a zipper)
Type I topoisomerase cuts _____ strand(s) and allowing the DNA to _________. After it is complete it seals the nicked strand. 1, swivel to relieve the supercoil.
Type II topoismerase cuts _______ strand(s) 2
All polymerases that synthesize nucleic acids can only catalyze synthesis in this direction ____. Therefore the template is read in this direction ____. 5' to 3', 3' to 5'
DNA prokaryotic polymerases require a ____ group to begin synthesis. This requirement is met by a _______, which is synthesized by this enzyme _______ and does not require a primer RNA primer, RNA polymerase
Each nucleotide requires the energy of hydrolysis of ____ high energy bonds 2. pyrophosphate is released from the dNTP, which is then further hydrolized to pyrophosphatase.
Is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing chain elongation in prokaryotes for both the leading and lagging strands. DNA Polymerase III
Prokaryote Pol III has _________ activity which allows it to replicate DNA with as much fidelity as possible. It checks each newly added nucleotide for accuracy. proofreading
Prokaryote Pol III exonuclease works in this direction 3' to 5'
DNA polymerase I catalyzes what reaction? What direction does it function? removal of RNA primer and replacment with dNTPs. 5' to 3' exonuclease which removes the RNA primer. It also contains 3' to 5' exonuclease (proofreading) ability
What does DNA ligase do? seals the gap that remains after Pol I removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA
During what cell cycle phase do eukaryotic cells replicate their DNA? S phase
Name the two important eukaryotic DNA polymerases Pol alpha, Pol delta
What produces the RNA primer in Eukaryotic DNA replication? Pol alpha (it also contains DNA polymerase activity)
This enzyme extends the leading and lagging DNA fragments in Eukaryotic DNA replication that began by Pol alpha. It also contains DNA proofreading activity Pol delta
Describe the unique problem created in Eukaryotic DNA replication to complete the replication. What enzyme solves this problem? Eukaryotes contain linear DNA, therefore at the end of the lagging strand there will be a gap where the final RNA primer was removed. The enzyme is telomerase
The ends of eukaryotic DNA contain repeated sequences called ______ telemoeres
Telomerase is only present in what kind of cells? Cells that continually divide and are not terminally differentiated.
Telomerase is a certain type of this kind of enzyme reverse transcriptase
Some polymerases can copy an RNA template into DNA in the process known as ________ reverse transcription.
Reverse transcriptase lacks ______ ability. proofreading
A defect in the mismatch repair system has been shown to cause this disease hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), one of the most common inhereted cancers
This type of enzyme recognize a misincorporated nucleotide, nicks the strand, and remove sthe misincorporated nucleotide. endonucleases
The rare genetic disease zeroderma pigmentosum most often originates from a deficiency in this enzyme excision endonuclease
Created by: addimatteo
 

 



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