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American History 2

American History 2nd Semester Study Guide

President Hoover’s philosophy Not to control business and rugged individualism (pulling yourself up by your own bootstraps)
Rugged individualism Pulling yourself up by your bootstraps
New Deal Designed to alleviate the problems of the Great depression focused on relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform
Civilian Conservation Corps helped protect the nation's natural resources by planting trees, creating hiking trails, and building fire lookout towers
Civil Works Administration Created by Roosevelt it helped men get jobs
Agricultural Adjustment Act sought to raise crop prices by lowering production, which the government achieved by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of every acre of land unseeded.
Social Security Administration Provided a regular payment for retired workers and their spouses and aided people with disabilities.
Roosevelt’s Court Packing Scheme Roosevelt wanted to add people to the Supreme Court to make sure that his policies got passed. This made people angry with him and they saw it as a “power grab”
Father Coughlin Roman Catholic priest from a suburb of Detroit, broadcast radio sermons that combined economic, political, and religious ideas. Initially a supporter of the New Deal, Coughlin soon turned against Roosevelt.
Huey Long A senator from Louisiana who was at first a supporter of the new deal but eventually turning against it he had his own plan called Share Our Wealth which gave something to everyone just when he was gaining popularity Long was assassinated.
Upton Sinclair Author of “The Jungle” Wrote about sanitation in meatpacking industry
American Liberty League The American Liberty League opposed New Deal measures that it believed violated respect for the rights of individuals and property
Causes of the Great Depression American trade was cut down because of our policies a crisis in the farm sector easy and available credit unequal distribution of income
Isolationism Keeping out of foreign affairs
Appeasement Giving up principles to calm an aggressor (a country that attacks another first)
Blitzkrieg Made use of advances in military technology such as fast tanks and more powerful aircraft to take the enemy by surprise and then quickly crush all opposition with overwhelming force
Nonaggression Pact Once bitter enemies, on August 23, 1939 fascist Germany and communist Russia now committed never to attack each other
Lend-Lease Act Under this plan, the president would lend or lease arms and other supplies to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States.”
Genocide the deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population
Allied Powers United States, Great Britain, and Russia
D-Day June 6, 1944, the first day of the invasion. Shortly after midnight, three divisions parachuted down behind German lines. They were fol- lowed in the early morning hours by thousands upon thousands of seaborne soliders. It was a very bloody battle.
GI Bill of Rights In addition to encouraging veterans to get an education by paying part of their tuition, the GI Bill guaranteed them a year’s worth of unemployment benefits while job hunting. It also offered low-interest, federally guaranteed loans
Nuremberg Trials Trails of 24 Nazi officers where ½ were sentenced to death while the other ½ went to prison
Marshall Plan Revived European hopes. Over the next four years, 16 countries received some $13 billion in aid. By 1952, Western Europe was flourishing, and the Communist party had lost much of its appeal to voters
Cold War The conflicting U.S. and Soviet aims in Eastern Europe led to the Cold War, a conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield
Truman Doctrine The United States sent $400 million in aid to Turkey and Greece, greatly reducing the danger of communist takeover in those nations
The Alger Hiss case In 1948, a former Communist spy named Whittaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of spying for the Soviet Union. Hiss was later found guilty of being a spy.
Policy of containment taking measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries
Joseph McCarthy Joseph McCarthy was a crappy legislator from Wisconsin and decided he needed something to win re election started accusing everyone and their dog of being a communist but eventually people called his bluff after believing him for quite some time
Iron curtain The invisible curtain that divided Europe after WWII
Berlin airlift to fly food and supplies into West Berlin. For 327 days, planes took off and landed every few minutes, around the clock. In 277,000 flights, they brought in 2.3 million tons of supplies everything from food, fuel, and medicine
NATO Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal joined with the United States and Canada on April 4, 1949, to form a defensive military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
The Korean War On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces swept across the 38th parallel in a surprise attack on South Korea. The conflict that followed became known as the Korean War.
Sputnik In the competition for international prestige, the Soviets leaped to an early lead in what came to be known as the space race. On October 4, 1957, they launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite
Bay of Pigs Originally planned by Eisenhower Kennedy took over and approved this attack on Cuba to overthrow Castro this attack failed miserably
Peace Corps a program of volunteer assistance to the developing nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Gerrymandering Politicians in power redraw the boundaries of voting districts, so that their party will gain an advantage
Brown v. Board of Education A case that ended segregation in schools
Rosa Parks a black women who refused to give up her seat to a white man she was arrested and as word of her arrest spread african-americans began the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Malcolm X A african-american leader during the Civil rights movement who believed in black superiority and separatism from whites and was more violent than MLK
Affirmative action Affirmative-action programs involve making special efforts to hire or enroll groups that have suffered discrimination
Domino theory Eisenhower explained the domino theory, in which he likened the countries on the brink of communism to a row of dominoes waiting to fall one after the other
Christmas Bombings Nixon found peace to be elusive so when talks broke off on December 16th he started and extensive bombing campaign against the 2 largest cities in the North (Hanoi and Haiphong). The US dropped 100,000 bombs over 10 days only pausing on Christmas Day
Vietnamization A plan put together by Nixon and Henry Kissinger to end America's involvement in Vietnam. Called for the gradual withdrawal of troops so the the south Vietnamese would take a more active combat role in the war.
Nixon’s invasion of Cambodia In the spring of 1970 American troops were heading home and the war was winding down when Nixon announced that US troops had invaded Cambodia. He believed he clean out the Viet Cong supply centers there.
Stagflation It’s an economic condition that includes inflation continuing to rise while business activity is stalled and unemployment is increasing. THis led to greater government borrowing and pushed up interest rates.
The Pentagon Papers Revealed that the government had drawn up plans for entering the Vietnam War even though LBJ promised he would not send troops. Papers showed there was never a plan to end the war as long as the North Vietnam kept fighting.
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor This is basically the reason the U.S. started fighting in the war
Effects of W.W.II rise in confidence shift in population push toward equality new technologies (radar, computers, synthetics, jet engines/rockets, atomic technology)
Truman’s domestic policy Fair Deal - desegregation of military, ban on poll tax, $ for urban renewal
Rollback and liberation Eisenhower’s foreign policy which was where they put communist back to where it was originally and freed people from communist rule
Massive retaliation Eisenhower’s foreign policy use everything you got and use it all (nuclear weaponry)
Cuban Missile Crisis Soviet Union had missiles in Cuba Kennedy blocked off Cuba until they removed the missiles
Kennedy’s domestic policy New Frontier
Judicial activism Uses power of judicial review & interpretation actively Failure to adhere to precedent
Judicial restraint Defer to other branches & uphold actions unless clearly unconstitutional
Created by: cfaga
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