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Nucleic Acid Struct

Biochem

QuestionAnswer
DNA contains what sugar? 2-deoxyribose
Purines. Contains ______ rings in their structure Adenine and guanine. 2 rings
Pyrimidines. Contain ______ rings in their structure Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine. 1 ring
A nucleoside is made up of: one of the bases covalently attached (via glycosidic bond) to the 1' carbon of one of the sugar residues.
The 5' carbon of the sugar residue attaches to: phosphate group
List what attaches to the 1' carbon in DNA 1' - glycosidic bond,
List what attaches to the 2' carbon in DNA 2' - no hydroxy group,
List what attaches to the 3' carbon in DNA 3' - hydroxyl group is required for polymerization. Forms phosphodiester bond with carbon 5 of adjacent molecule.
List what attaches to the 4' carbon in DNA nothing
List what attaches to the 5' carbon in DNA linked to one or more phosphates, joined to carbon 3 of an adjacent nucleotide in nucleic acids through a phosphodiester bond
A DNA sequence is always written in what direction? 5' to 3'
DNA is antiparallel and complimentary. Define these terms. Antiparallel - the two strands are in opposite directions. Complimentary - A pairs with T, G pairs with C.
What is the complimentary sequence of AGCTCCTTAGG? CCTAAGGACCT
What is Chargaff's rule? The amount of A always equals T, and G equals C. Can use this to figure out the total percent of a given nucleotide in a sequence.
The sugar phosphate backbone is on the outside of the double helix and contains a ______ charge negative
The core of the double helix is: hydrophoebic.
Why is DNA an amphipathic molecule? Because of the hydrophilic sugar phosphate backbone and hydrophoebic core.
A-T base pairs contain ____ hydrogen bonds, and G-C base pairs contain _____ hydrogen bonds. 2, 3
Methods that can be used to separate double stranded DNA heat, alkali pH, certain chemicals
Define Tm the temperature required to melt 50% of DNA, or the temperature that results in the DNA being half denatured
What change will you notice in Tm of a DNA strand with high AT content versus high GC content High GC content will have a much higher Tm
What does Topoisomerase I do? remove negative supercoils to result in relaxed DNA.
What does Topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) do? induce negative supercoils
What does the antibiotic class of quinolones do? Inhibits prokaryotic DNA gyrase.
DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes is packaged in _______, which is made up of packaging units called ________ chromatin, nucleosomes
What amino acids primarily make up histones and why? Lysine and arginine. They are positively charged
A group of free nucleosomes in the absense of H1 is sensitive to ____________ nuclease degredation
What is the significance of H1? Associates with DNA to further condense it to a nucleofilament.
RNA basepairing back on itself can impart unique properties. When RNA exhibits enzymatic activity, what is called? What is its usual activity? ribozyme. Hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds within RNA
What are the three major types of RNA? mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
Heterogenious is size. Essentially correlated to the protein for which it encodes. Eukaryoctic version contains a m7G-cap and poly-A tail mRNA
What is the function of the G-cap structure Is to allow ribsomes to bind and to protect against nuclease degredation.
What is the function of the poly-A tail? Protects against nuclease degredation. Is an importain signal for transport out of the nucleus.
How many molecues make up prokaryotic and eukaryotic rRNA? Prokaryotic - 3. Eukaryotic - 4
tRNA is approximately how large? 4S or 80 nts
tRNAs are covalently linked to what? amino acid
What is the attachment site for amino acids on tRNA? CCA-3' terminus
What causes the cloverleaf-like structure of tRNA? extensive intrachain base-pairing.
The ______ determines the amino acid specificity by base-pairing with mRNA during translation. Anticodon loop
Two examples of other RNAs found only in the nucleus of eukaryotes hnRNA, snRNA
Created by: addimatteo
 

 



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