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Am.History ch 4

Am History Christ in the Americas ch 4

____and_____were primarily responsible for the evangelization of Mexico The Franciscans and Our Lady of Guadelupe
In Portuguese Brazil ______brought the gospel to the Indians. The Jesuits
The leader of the Jesuits, called the "Apostle of Brazil" was ... Jose de Anchieta, Jesuit
Superior of the Jesuits in Brazil, who started the city of San Paolo (st. Paul) Padre Nobrega
villages set up for Christian Indians in Brazil (with schools,chapels,houses)were called... aldeias
Cannibal tribe where Fathers Anchieta and Nobrega were held hostages Tamoyos
Known as the "father of Brazilian literature" for his extensive writings... Padre Anchieta
Archbishop of Lima, Peru who fought for Indian rights and got servitude eliminated... St. Turibus,
humble Dominican brother, half-negro and half-Spanish, famous for healing and penance St. Martin de Porres of Peru
Died at age 31; famous for praying to save the churches of Lima from the pirate Spillbergen St. Rose of Lima
Missionary to the savage Chaco region, where he converted many and became local hero of folk songs. St. Francis Solano of Peru
Chief missionary to the Negro slaves of the Spanish colonies, esp. at Cartagena in the Carribean sea.Set up a hospital too. St. Peter Claver
colony moved to a mountain plateau in New Mexico, after original settlement was deserted by most colonists who mistreated Indians. Santa Fe, New Mexico (capital)
Meaning of "Santa Fe" Holy Faith
Between 1600 and 1625, 26 Franciscans built _____churches. 50
Nun who reportedly traveled to the New World and spoke to the natives in their own language about seeking out the priests. Mary de Agreda
Name of the process by which a person can be in two places at one time...through God's power... Bilocation
Missionary who later visited Mary de Agreda, who accurately described NM landscape, Indians, customs, events..etc. Fr. Benevides
Indians led by Chief Pope revolted (and massacred) against injustices in Santa Fe in the year .... 1680
Arrived in Santa Fe 1692 carrying banner of the Blessed Virgin and wanting to resettle peacefully there. 200 Spaniards led by Diego Vargas.
Accepted the surrender of 23 Indian Pueblos (villages) mercifully. 2000 were baptized. Diego Vargas
Area which originally included Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and a part of Brazil... Paraguay
Spanish king who issued commission to Jesuits to convert the Indians in 1608. Philip III
Communities isolating the Indians from white men, protecting them from bad example and enslavement. self-supported with crafts. Reductions
Led a migration of 12000 Indians in 700 boats down the Parana River for 500 miles to be safe from raiders called Mamelucos. Fr. Montoya
Golden age of the Reductions 1650 to 1720
Treaty in 1750 between Spain and Portugal that gave territory and missions to Portugal, forcing out the Jesuits and indians. Treaty of Madrid
The Jesuit representing the Order who told the missionaries to leave the reductions along with the Indians. Luis Lope Altamirano.
Utterly hostile to the Jesuits, he expelled them from Portugal and their colonies since he controlled the govt. during the reign of Joseph I. Marquis de Pombal
Year the Jesuits were expelled from Portugal and her colonies. 1759
Ruling family in Spain that replace the Hapsburgs in 1700. Bourbons
Names of the first 3 Bourbon kings that ruled Spain after the Hapsburgs. Philip V, Ferdinand VI, and Charles III.
The belief that the king should have no checks on his power, and control over the Church. absolutism
The dynasty favoring absolutism... Bourbons.
Efficient, practical king, but without deep religious faith. Regarded New World as a business venture, and disliked the Jesuits. Charles III of Spain
King Charles III expelled the Jesuits from Spain and all possessions in the year... 1767
what religious order evengelized California in the 1700's? Franciscans
In command of the Lower California expedition, supposed to establish settlements as far up the coast as possible. Jose de Galvez
Lame Franciscan who launched missions up California: San Diego, Monterey, and San Buenaventura (now Ventura) Fr. Junipero Serra
First California colonists arrive in the year... 1776
California colonists led by... Juan Baptist de Anza
Mission on San Francisco Bay was founded on what day? October 4, feast of St. Francis, 1776
By the end of 1783, Serra had founded ___missions. 9
Russia entered the New World under the emperor __________ Peter the Great
the Bering expeditions of _____to _____, and from _____ to ______ discovered the Bering strait and mainland America. 1725, 1730 1733 - 1741
Russians were primarily interested in land and the ____ _____ fur trade
One of 2 men chosen to be represented in statues at the US capitol from California. Junipero Serra
The Black Legend was fostered primarily by the ____ and the _______ Dutch and British
The Black Legend has 3 themes: 1) Spain killed millions of ________deliberately and cruelly indians
Black Legend theme #2: The remaining Indians left alive by Spain were ____ and ______ oppressed , enslaved
Black Legend theme #3: Spanish _____in the New World was oppressive and unjust. government
Author of "A Brief Relation of the Destruction of the Indies" (which exaggerated the plight of the Indians) Bartolomeo de las Casas
Bartolomeo de las Casas claimed that the Spanish had killed an impossible ______Indians. 20 million
Fewer Indians were actually killed AFTER the Spanish came than before due to the ____ _____ Tribal wars... deadly fueds between tribes.
The main cause of Indian death was ____ disease for which they had no immunity, esp. smallpox
Spanish kings regarded Indians as their _____ subjectsq
English kings regarded the Indians as ____ ____ enemy nations
The Spanish govt. never authorized the Indians to be ____ or ____ as were the Blacks of Africa bought or sold ...like slaves
There was not a serious revolt in _____years, during which time the Spanish governed without professional ______, except on the frontier. 300 soldiers
The Black Legend is actually ______ to blacken the reputation of Spain in the New World. propaganda
Created by: margaretawarren