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Cardiovasc System

QuestionAnswer
Small arteries   arterioles  
Small veins   Venules  
White blood cells typicall leave circulation to enter tissues at _____   postcapillary venule  
______ are the smallest vessels. They consist of a single layer of _______ cells and their ________.   Capillaries, endothelial cells, basal lamina
Specialized ______ fibers synchronize the contraction of the heart to make contractions more efficient.   cardiac muscle  
Electrical impulses are initiated at the ______ node, or the pacemaker   sinoatrial (SA)  
Impulses spread through the atria to the _______ node   atrioventricular (AV)  
The impulse is transmitted to the ventricles by the ______   bundle of His  
Bundle of His divides into ____ and ____ bundle branches   right, left  
Further branching into subendothelial branches is known as ______   Purkinje fibers  
Composed of endothelial cells, basal lamina and subendothelium connective tissue layer.   Tunica intima  
Composed of circumferentially arranged smooth muscle   Tunica media  
Outermost connective tissue layer, composed mostly of collagenous tissue and a few elastic fibers   Tunica adventitia  
Small blood vessels that nourish the tunica media are called ______. Is in this tunic layer in large vessels: _______   vasa vasorum, tunica adventitia
A network of autonomic nerves found in tunica adventitia that controls the contraction of smooth muscle   nervi vascularis  
Elastic arteries have multiple sheets of ____. They function primarily as _____.   elastic layers, conduction tubes
Largest elastic arteries:   Aorta, Pulmonary artery, Main branches of aorta (brachiocephalic, common carotid, subclavian, common iliac arteries)
In Tunica Intima layer, Weibel-Palade bodies contain _____   von Willebrand factor (coagulating factor VII)  
Most von Willebrand factor is synthesized by __________.   arterial endothelial cells.  
Endothelial cells maintain nonthrombogenic barrier between platelets and sebendothelial tissue by producing ______ and ________   anticoagulants (thrombomodulin), and antithrombogenic sustances (prostacyclin and tissue plasminogen activator)
Damage to endothelial cells causes them to releast prothombogenic agents such as ________ and _______   von Willebrand factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor  
Endothelial cells modulate blood flow and vascular resistance by secreting ______ and _____.   Vasoconstrictors (endothelin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, {ACE}), Vasodilators (endothelial-derived relaxation factor {EDRF/NO}, prostacyclin)
Foam cells are derived from _____ and _____   macrophages and smooth muscle  
Muscular arteries (also known as _____ arteries). It has more ____ and less ____ in the tunica media than elastic arteries.   medium artery, smooth muscle, elastin
In muscular artery, the tunica media is composed almost entirely of ______   smooth muscle  
Muscular arteries have a prominent ______   internal elastic membrane  
Continuous capillaries are found in: ____, ____, and ____   muscle, lung, and CNS  
______ junctions, a type of tight junctions, seal continuous capillaries together   occluding  
Relatively unspecialized cells derived from the same precursor cell that gives rise to endothelial cells   Pericytes  
Fenestrated capillaries are found in: _____, _____, and ______   endocrine glands, intestinal tract, and gallbladder  
Discontinuous capillaries are found in: _____, _____, _____   liver, spleen, and bone marrow  
Discontinuous capillaries are also called ______ or _____   sinusoidal capillaries or sinusoids  
__________ of metarterioles control blood flow into the capillary bed   Precapillary sphincters  
Large veins have a thick tunica ______, and a thin tunica _____   adventitia, media
Venous channels in the cranial cavity are lined with _______ cells and are called ______   endothelial, venous or dural sinuses
The two largest lymph vessels are the ____ and ____   thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct
Created by: addimatteo