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Heart Development

Cardiac progenitor cells lie in the _____, immediately lateral to the _______. They then migrate through the _______.   Epiblast, primitive streak, streak  
The cardiac progenitor cells proceed toward the ______ and position themselves rostral to the _______ and _______.   cranium, buccopharyngeal membrane, neural folds  
When positioned rostal to the buccopharyngeal membrane and neural folds, the cells reside in the ___________ of the ________ mesoderm   splanchnic layer, lateral plate  
The cells are induced by the underlying _____ to form cardiac myoblasts   pharyngeal endoderm  
______ also appear in this mesoderm   Blood islands  
Process by which the blood islands form blood cells and vessels   Vasculogenesis  
The blood islands unite and form a horseshoe-shaped endothelial lined tube surrounded by myoblasts. It is known as _______   cardiogenic field  
The intraembryonic cavity over the cardiogenic field later develops into the ______   Pericardial cavity  
Some blood islands appear bilaterally, parallel, and close to the midline. They form a pair of longitudinal vessels called ______   dorsal aortae  
The CNS grows rapidly and extends over the central cardiogenic area and the future paricardial cavity. The buccopharyngeal membrane is pulled forward. The heart and pericardial cavity move first to the _______ region, and finally to the _______.   cervical region, thorax  
The heart tube consists of:   endocardium, the myocardium (forming the muscular wall), the epicardium (visceral pericardium)  
This layer of the heart tube forms the coronary arteries, including their endothelial lining and smooth muscle   epicardium  
Formation of the cardiac loop:   ventrally, caudally, and to the right.  
The bulbus cordis is narrow except at the proximal third, which will form the __________ part of the _____ ventricle   trabeculated, right  
The midportion of the bulbus, ______, forms the __________ of both ventricles   conus cordis, outflow tracks  
The distal part of the bulbus, the _______, forms the roots and proximal portion of the ____ and _____.   truncus arteriosus, aorta, pulmonary artery  
The primitive ventricle, which is trabeculated, is called the primitive ____ ventricle.   left  
The trabeculated proximal third of the bulbus cordis may be called the primitive _____ ventricle.   right  
When the heart lies on the right side of the thorax instead of the left, ___________.   dextrocardia, the heart loops to the left instead of the right.  
Dextrocardia might coincide with ______, which is a complete reversal of asymmetry in all organs.   situs inversus  
When some organs are reversed and others are not is called _____.   Heterotaxy  
The master gene of heart development, which is induced by anterior endoderm.   NKX2.5  
The signals to express NKX2.5 require the secretion of ____ and ____. These are secreted by the _______ and ________   BMP2 and BMP4, endoderm and lateral plate mesoderm  
_______ proteins (produced by the neural tube) must be blocked, as they normally inhibit heart development. These proteins are inhibited by ______ and ______.   WNT, cresent and cerberus  
The homologue of NKX2.5 that regulates heart development in Drosophila   Tinman  
______, another transcription factor in heart development, is expressed later than NKX2.5 and plays a role in _______.   TBX5, Septation  
Cardiac looping is dependent on the laterality inducing genes _____ and _____   nodal, lefty2  
Nodal and lefty2 induce the expression of transcription factor _____ in the ______ mesoderm on the _____ side of the heart   PITX2, lateral plate, left  
NKX2.5 upregulates the expression of _____ and ____, which are transcription factors expressed in the primitive heart tube.   HAND1 and HAND2  
The right and left horns receive blood from these veins:   vitelline or omphlomesenteric vein, umbilical vein, common cardinal vein
The obliteration of the right umbilical vein and the left vitelline vein causes the ______________.   the left sinus horn to rapidly loose its importance  
When the left common cardinal vein is obliterated in week 10, all the remains of the left sinus horn is the _________ and _________.   oblique vein of the left atrium, coronary sinus
The right horn eventually forms the only communication between the original sinus venousus and the atrium. It is incorporated into the right atrium to form __________.   the smooth walled part of the right atrium.  
The ________ portion of the right venous valve disappears entirely.   superior  
The inferior portion of the right venous valve develops into two parts:   valve of the inferior vena cava, valve of the coronary sinus
The ___________ forms the division between the original trabeculated part of the right atrium and the smooth walled part, the sinus venarum, which originated from the right sinus horn.   crista terminalis  
The septum can be formed by a method where two masses of tissue, called ________, approach each other until they fuse.   endocardial cushions  
The endocardial cushions help form:   atrial and ventricular (membranous) septa, and the aortic and pulmonary channels
Another way to form the cardiac septa is by way of a ridge that forms between to rapidly expanding portions. This type of septum _________ the atria and ventricles.   partially divides  
A sickle-shaped crest grows from the roof of the common atrium into the ______. This crest is the first part of the _______.   lumen, septum primum
The opening between the lower rim of the septum primum and the endocardial cushions is the _______.   "ostium (a.k.a. ""foramen"") primum  "
Before closure of the ostium primum, cell dealth in the upper part of the septum primum produces perforations, which coalesce to form the ________, which ensures free blood flow from the right to left primative atrium.   ostium secundum  
When the lumen of the right atrium expands due to the incorporation of the sinus horn, a new fold called the _________, appears. It grows down toward the septum in the atriventricular canal.   septum secundum  
The opening left by the septum secundum is called the ________.   foramen ovale  
The upper part of the septum secundum disappears and the remaining part becomes the _______________   valve of the foramen ovale  
In septum formation in the ventricles, outgrowths of _____________________ along the top of the muscular septum closes the foramen   tissue from the inferior endocardial cushions  
____________ migrating from the neural folds in the hindbrain region, contribute to endocardial cushion formation in both the conus cordis and truncus areriosus.   Neural crest cells  
Abnormal migration, proliferation, or differentiation of neural crest cells can result in congenital malformations such as:   tetralogy of Fallot, persistent truncus arteriosus, and transposition of the great vessels
Since neural crest cells also contribute to __________ development, it is not uncommon to see ______ and cardiac abnormalities in the same individual   craniofacial, facial
The most common occurring abnormality is in the _________ region.   conotruncal  
The displacement of the septum (Tetralogy of Fallot) produces four cardiovascular alterations:   1. a narrow right ventricular outflow region (pulmonary stenosis), 2. a ventricular septal defect, 3. an overriding aorta, 4. right ventricular hypertrophy
Mutations in the TBX5 gene results in ______ syndrome, which is characterized by _______ and ___________. Defects in the muscular portion of the interventricular septum may also occur.   Holt-Oram syndrome, radial limb abnormalities, atrial septal defects
Holt-Oram syndrome is one of a group of _______ syndromes, since TBX5 regulates forelimb development and plays a role in the septation of the heart.   heart-hand syndromes  
Created by: addimatteo



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