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APUSH 2nd Semester

Mrs. Bagley's AP US History class

Slaughterhouse cases of 1873 courts determined the 14th amendment only applied to former slaves. first case regarding the fourteenth amendment. weakened it. lots of cases after this also weakened 14th amendment.
Plessy v. Ferguson Plessy paid for first class ticket but forced to go to second class..example of his property being taken away from him without him committing a crime...court decided races were never meant to be equal so this opened up allowance for discrimination
US v. Reese 1876-- about the 15th Amendment. allowed states to require literacy tests. voting could not be denied only because of race.
Lochner v. New York 1905--court ruled worker’s had the right to choose the number of hours they would work
Muller v. Oregon 1908 - Justified sex discrimination in the workplace saying women were more fragile and their health needed more protection.
Schenck v. U.S. government--1919. limit on free speech if it was seditious or going against the government/draft.
The Scopes Trial 1925 (not a Supreme court case but important)--whether modern science should be taught in schools (evolution) even if it goes against the Bible. Dismissed on a technicality but raised important issue and lots of press.
Schechter v. US (1935)--court ruled the NRA unconstitutional
Missouri ex. rel. Gaines v. Canada 1938 In-state school for whites have to have an in-state school for blacks.Can either build a new school for blacks equal to the whites' or integrate their existing school.Part of NAACP trying to integrate/overturn plessy through the education system.
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education (1954)--court declared state laws establishing that separate schools for black and white children was unconstitutional
Gideon v. Wainright (1963)--court ruled every person tried in court should have a lawyer
Miranda v. Arizona (Miranda Rights)--1966: court case that gave Americans the Miranda Rights...right to remain silent, what you say can and will be used against you, right to an attorney (if you don’t have one the government will sponsor attorney)
Engle v. Vitale 1962. separation of church and state. children should not have to participate in prayer inside school
Abbington v. Schempp 1963. separation of church and state. children should not bring Bible to class and cannot pray with their Bible
13th Amendment (1865)-slavery and involuntary servitude shall not exist in the United States except as use for punishment
14th Amendment (1869)-All people born in the United States are legal citizens
15th Amendment (1869)-the right to vote shall not be denied to a person based on race or color
17th Amendment (1913)-the citizens elect senators and each shall have one vote
18th Amendment (1919)-the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors within the importation or exportation into the United States is prohibited
19th Amendment (1920)-citizens shall not be denied the right to to vote despite sex
21st Amendment (1933)-repeals the 18th Amendment, but still prohibits the transportation or importation of alcohol into the the United States for delivery or use in violation
26th Amendment (1971)-citizens shall not be denied the right to vote over the age of 18 according to age
William McKinley (1896-1901)Known for his expansionist ideas and imperialism, Teddy Roosevelt was his Vice President, was assassinated by an anarchist, President during the Spanish-American War, President during the war in the Philippines
Teddy Roosevelt (1901-1909)Sickly childhood, won national fame in the Spanish-American War, President who wanted to be an inspiring guide to get things done, trustbusting, railroads, food/drug industries, Panama Canal, Big Stick Diplomacy, TRCorollary,Nobel Peace Prize
Which President models the current view of how much a president should be involved and how much they complete? Teddy
How did Teddy contribute to progressiveism? knew how to inspire and guide public opinion, intervened in coal miners strike, acknowledge social and economic inequalities
What consisted of Roosevelt's "trustbusting"? The breaking up of monopolies and the coal miners strike
How did Roosevelt contribute to the railroads? Northern Securities Company: Sherman Anti-Trust Act & "Northern Securities v. US"
How did Roosevelt contribute to the regulation of the food and drug industries? Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Drug and Food Act.
What is "Big Stick Diplomacy"? “Talk soft and carry a big stick (military)”
Why did TR receive the Nobel Peace Prize? Compromise between Russia and Japan, favored Russia when Japan won for racist reasons
Which President started his own political party and what was it called? TR started the Bull Moose Party
William Taft (1909-1913)
Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)A progressive faced with WWI & wanted to make the US a better place but time was consumed by Euro & WWI,promised 14 Points would be resolution to WWI, refused compromise, & he was the president during the ratification of 18th & 19th Amendments
Who started talk about the 14 Points? The League of Nations
What was Woodrow Wilson's stance on WWI? “Make the world safe for democracy” to encourage involvement in WWI
Warren G. Harding (1921-1923)“Return to Normalcy” policy,stressed isolationism, turned back progressive policies, died from a heart condition in office
Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929)Harding’s VP(not meant to lead), Very quiet and reserved (“You Lose” story, never ran after his term.
Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)Got blamed for the Depression even though it was not his fault, believed the stock market crash was a normal cycle, stressed volunteerism and localism during GD(worst thing to do during Depression: bailout individuals)Trickle-Down Economy
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)Believed in federal action, New Deal, Fireside Chats, First Hundred Days Second New Deal, Second Hundred Days, President during WWII
What was the purpose of the New Deal? (Three Rs)Relief for unemployed, recovery for private businesses, reform of flaws of system that caused the Depression
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)Anti-Communism = hatred for Russia,dropped the atomic bombs on Japan, ended WWII, containment policy, United Nations and NATO, Truman Doctrine, President during, Marshall Plan, President during Korean War, began desegregation
What was the Truman Doctrine? US has the right to intervene to save nations from communism
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)Federal Highway Act, began space race, ended Korean War, peaceful movement: downsizing military, less $ on defense, more on internal, reconstruction, President during Brown v. Board of Edu, paid attention to foreign affairs,supported S. Vietnam
Did Dwight get very involved in the Civil Rights movement? No, after the Brown v. Board of Education ruling he distanced himself from the subject of desegregation.
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)Got elected because he looked good on camera, National Defense Education Act, Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis -- peaceful resolution, part of Vietnam War, widely known for his shocking assassination
Who assassinated JFK? Lee Harvey Oswald
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)Knew how to get things done in the presidency due to his connections with Congress, Civil Rights Act of 1964, part of Vietnam War, Operation Rolling Thunder, Tet Offensive, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, The Great Society, War on Poverty
T/F The Tet Offensive was drawn immediately after the invasion. False - It was drawn six weeks prior. The Tet Offensive was basically LBJ's excuse to increase military presence in Vietnam.
Richard Nixon (1969-1974)Policy of Vietnamization, enigmatic president, opened communication with Soviet Union and China, president to enact Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) with USSR, and the Watergate Scandal (cause of resignation)
Gerald Ford (1974-1977)People trusted him until he pardoned Nixon and said “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln”
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Represented himself as an outsider, tried to have his moral values with his government policies, gave up Panama Canal, Camp David Accords, “Crisis of Confidence” tv speech -- Americans suffering from malaise, Iran Hostage Crisis
Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)Known for "Reaganomics", sacrificed environmental protection, workplace safety and consumer protection for an, increase of efficiency and productivity of business, end of the Cold War, president during the “collapse of communism”
What did "Reaganomics" do? It lowered personal income tax rates, increase defense spending, and deregulated industry
George HW Bush (1989-1996)People voted for him because he looked more like a president, Operation Desert Storm, put US troops in Saudi Arabia -- where Mecca is located, bad idea
Bill Clinton (1993-2001)Small connections with Kennedy, Proposition 187, Defense of Marriage Act, & Whitewater Scandal -- led to possible impeachment; however, he was acquitted
George W. Bush (2001-2009)Florida ballot scandal, September 11, 2001, & Intervention in Iraq
Reconstruction Key: The north may have won the war, but the south will win the peace.
Efforts to reconstruct the USA: The Defeated South 1. Physically in bad shape-land destroyed 2. South Still angry- slaves, farms, deaths 3. Racism
Lincoln's Plan for reconstruction 10% Plan - a state could rejoin the union after 10% of white voting men swore an oath of loyalty to the union. The object of this plan was to reconstruct as quickly as possible
What were the three paths of reconstruction? Presidential reconstruction, Freed People reconstruction, and Congressional/Radical reconstruction.
Presidential Reconstruction 10% of white males take oath
"Freed People" Reconstruction Economic independence and political involvement. Also "moving about" to find family and work.
Radical Reconstruction Freedman's Bureau
What was the Freedman's Bureau? Plan dev. to take & redis. land to help slaves start. Promised 40acres&mules to start.Wanted to provide edu. for slaves & help dev.skills to make $.planter elite=tax,confiscate land,& redistribution(Didn’t work/happen bc-states right& fed gov can't tax)
Wade Davis Bill 50% of the white male population had to swear oath of loyalty to the union to rejoin.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 Declared that all people born in the USA are a citizen - challenged by Dred Scott decision by Supreme Court which said that Africans were never intended to be citizens.
Tenure of Office Act Passed by Supreme court to limit the President’s power by making it their responsibility to approve a replacement in office.LBJ wanted to choose own cabinet & was trying to replace Stanton w/Grant for Sec. of War bc Stanton was for recon to help freedmen
Impeachment Gather evidence against president who you think has committed a crime. House of Representatives who them gathers evidence and gives it to the Senate who accuses the president, investigates further. If the president is convicted, he is removed from office.
Who was the 1st president to be impeached? Andrew Johnson was the 1st president to be impeached because of his violation of the Tenure of office act but was acquitted
What can overturn a Supreme Court Ruling? Amendments
Civil War Amendments 1865- 13th Amendment-ended slavery 1868-14th- defined citizenship 1869-15th- all men received the right to vote
T/F Reconstruction failed. True!
How did the North win the war, but lose the peace? White Southern resistance and Northern loss of will.
What were forms of Southern resistance to reconstruction? Social resistance, economic resistance, political resistance, and domestic terrorism.
Social Resistance Kept freed people from achieving middle class, social separation,and physical separation
Economic Resistance Debt “slavery”- sharecropping and crop lien system
Political Resistance Black Codes- enforced segregation, literacy tests made it virtually impossible to pass, poll tax, and grandfather clause said that if your grandfather could vote before 1865, you could vote.
Domestic Terrorism The KKK was originally against black voting rights and refused to take oathes, then began more violent actions to intimidate to stop voting.
Northern loss of will Money!! Many poor people, immigrants, and wealthy were too concerned with themselves and no longer cared for war.
Pacific Railway Act of 1862 More people concerned with going west than fixing things where they were.
Compromise of 1877 Republican could be president as long as troops were removed from the south. Troops were the ones who enforced reconstruction. This can be argued to be the end of Reconstrustion
Racism Court rulings made segregation legal - “ not unreasonable to be separated as long as it was equal.
Due Process A person can only be tried once for the same crime
Equal Protection of the Law Same laws applied to all States cannot make laws that take away rights.
Indian People Under Siege: Ultimate Decline of Native communities in the West 1. Buffaloes killed by 1000s(Deliberate effort to cause nomadic Indians,“Only good Indian is dead Indian”) 2. TranscontinentalRR(Need for land=push out Natives) 3. Use of more sophisticated weapons (repeating rifles) 4. Warfare 5. Reservation system
What were specific Native American targets by the white men? Blackhill & Sioux terrorties were wanted for gold and silver.
Homestead Act 169 acres, work land, build houses, and live there. Lots of sod houses, bugs, fires, & the land was hard to farm (mostly grew wheat)
What enforced prohibition? The Volstead Act enforced the 18th Amendment.
How did the 18th Amendment lead to the 19th Amendment? The Forces behind prohibition
What the 18th and 19th Amendments influence? Speakeasies, gangs, women drinking in public, flappers, and jazz
What is bootleg alcohol? The alcohol people brewed in their basements during prohibition.
What is Al Capone known for? Valentines Day Massacre and wealthy gang member. Nobody could link him to murders and prostitution. The IRS put him in prison for tax evasion.
Economic "Prosperity" in the 20s banks offer credit- people want to buy refrigerator, electric fan, model- T, washing machine, toaster, radio, phonograph. This led to consumer debt.
How did Ford pioneer mass production? He introduced the Model-T, an affordable car made on an assembly line.
What was Ford's principle? He believed in a, "five dollar day, forty hour week”. Working for For became one of the best jobs one could have as the salary was much better and promised a reasonable time spent at work.
What was Clara Bow known for? She was a popular actress best known for her film, "Shiek". She was a sensual actress and was considered sexually explicit. She became known as the “it” girl
What are some characteristics of early film?s Over exaggerated acting and no sound.
What was the first film with sound? The Jazz Singer
What was the first radio station? KDKA in Philly and consisted of mostly political news, sports, weather, and plays.
How was radio funded? Advertisements - most were directed towards housewives (soap operas)
What were some changes that stem from the popularity of the phonograph? People started having music in their homes which means people don't have to play instruments as a form of entertainment (extremely affected the number of people who learn instruments today)
What was the purpose of the Immigration Act of 1921 and the National Origin Act of 1924? What was a consequence? They wanted to encourage white protestants to come to America and the quota for non white countries decreased. Consequently, people trying to escape Nazi Germany were declined entrance into America.
Election of 1920 "Return to Normalcy” and isolationism(U.S. choose to try to stay isolated from the rest of the world). America elected Republican Warren G. Harding.
Reaction to WWI The American people believed they were betrayed by technology.
What was a social change in the 20s? An attitude of just “doing it for the fun of it” and progressives (morality and do-goodisim)
What form of journalism appeared in the 20s? Tabloids - smaller and more convenient for traveling on subways
What change came on professional athletes? They started being recognized as celebrities (ie: Babe Ruth).
What was a consequence of the new celebrity aspect of athletes? Black Sox Scandal - 1919 - White Soxs lost world series on purpose because they were paid off by gamblers.
What was a Flapper? Women were supposed to look like your brother (no curves, flat chested) but women rebelled against this idea...the bra was invented out of this rebellion.
How does the KKK reinvent themselves? They had a new agenda of trying to control ethnicity diversity by making it hard for Catholics or immigrants to feel accepted.
What does a Christian Fundamentalist believe? They take everything in the Bible for its literal meaning.
What was the Scopes Trial about? Tennessee had laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution. A school teacher, Mr. Scopes challenged this law and mentioned evolution to his students. He was arrested and put to trial.
What was the Harlem Renaissance? The new culture that stems from jazz music.
What is Alice Paul known for? The National Women's Party and the Equal Rights Amendment.
Who made up the "lost" generation? Stine, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, & T.S. Elliot.
Who won the election of 1928? Herbert Hoover
What were the causes of the Great Depression? Prosperity (bull market) hides trouble,stock market collapses, no "safety nets", and the global community.
How did the prosperity hide trouble? Unequal distribution of wealth, easy credit = too much debt, no laws with banks, consumers buying less- farmers producing too much.
What came along with the stock market collapse? Loss of confidence, Oct. 29th Black Tuesday, banks collapse, not enough reserve cash
What was the consequence of having no "safety nets"? Factories laid off, business going under, and people hoarding money.
How did the global community contribute to the Great Depression? Hawley-Smott tariff: thought tax on imported goods would encourage Americans to buy american, US ended loans to Europe.
What stems from FDR's New Deal? CCC, public works, AAA(Agriculture), farmers were paid to grow less, TVA dams(provide electricity), federal deposit insurance corp: insured savings act.
What happened in FDR's Second New Deal? More relief programs & greater protection for labor unions, greater government spending, long term reform.
What acts/programs stem from the Second New Deal? 1. Social Security Act of 1935 (Francis Townsend). 2. Wagner Act - collective bargaining, guarantees workers rights. 3. Huey Long: take from rich and give to poor. 4. Fr. Coughlin - depression caused by conspiracy of Jews trying to get world’s money.
What was the Cold War? US v. Soviets & lasted for much of the 2nd half of the 20th century. It resulted in mutual suspicions, heightened tensions, and a series of international incidents that brought the world’s superpowers to the brink of disaster.
What was the Marshall Plan? Sought to reduce hunger, poverty,desperation, and chaos,restore the confidence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries and of Europe as a whole.
What was a secondary purpose of the Marshall Plan? It was aimed to run back both socialist and Communist electoral bids for power in Europe.
How did the United States' western allies become somewhat beneficial in Europe? It helped balance democracy and communism.
T/F China played a big role in the Marshall Plan. False, the western nations successfully excluded communist China.
T/F Truman supported the New Deals. True, he even wanted to expand the programs.
T/F The FBI started spying on student and faculty members at universities around the United States. True
When was the Berlin Blockade? June 24, 1948. Stalin halted all traffic to West Berlin.
Who was Will Clayton? Asst Sec of State for Econ Affairs. He stated that, “We need markets—big markets—in which to buy & sell” in order to bring a solution to a postwar econ. The US became interested in integrating W.Eur & Asia into int'l econ open to Amer. trade & investment.
How many nations signed onto the United Nations? Which signed on permanently? 50 nations signed, but United States, Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and Nationalist China signed on permanently.
Describe the "Cold War Culture". The cold war did not necessarily depend on military confrontation; nor was it defined exclusively by a quest for economic supremacy. It was a contest of values.
T/F Many Americans feared an economic backslide after WWII. True, they thought that since war production had ended the hardships of the Great Depression, how would the economy fare in peacetime?
What was a popular movie during the Cold War Era? The Best Years of Our Lives (1946) - The feeling of community shared with wartime buddies dissipated, leaving only a profound sense of loneliness.
What did Joseph McCarthy do? Accused 205 employees of the State Department as communists. Nothing was found. He then went on to accuse many celebrities of communism. They were placed on the "Hollywood Blacklist".
What was a consequence of being on the Hollywood Blacklist? Loss of credibility, reliability, jobs, and even relationships.
What was "Better Dead than Red" about? Pople proclaimed themselves ready for atomic warfare. Civil Rights orgs. faced the worst persecution since the 1920s - destruction of the Civil Rights Congress and the Negro Youth Council.Public figures lost popularity(ie: W.E.B. DuBois Paul Robeson)
What is well remembered from the Kennedy administration? (1961-1963)- Bay of Pigs and the Vietnam "War".
When/What was the destruction of the Berlin Wall about? (1961) - The tesar dw
What was a component of the counter culture? Protest (especially against the Vietnam War)
What were types of protest became popular in the 60s? Non-violent, student, black pride, violent white resistance, and federal intervention.
What major act was passed by LBJ in the mid 60s and greatly affected American society? The Civil Rights Act of 1964
What legal organization had a huge effect on the black population of America? NAACP - They provided help through their Legal Defense and Education Fund - legal challenges to segregation laws.
Who were important figures in the Plessy v. Ferguson case? What was the ruling in that case? ~ Thurgood Marshall and Charles Hamilton Houston ~ It ruled that public schools could be segregated as long as they were "separate, but equal".
How did LBJ get things done during his administration? He used manipulative tactics such as name dropping Kennedy's death and putting his colleagues in awkward situations. (Civil Rights Laws)
After which important event did the US enter Southeast Asia? After the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution signing.
What was Operation Rolling Thunder? US air raids on Vietnamese and chemical attacks
What were Agent Orange, Agent Blue, and Napalm? Orange ~ Sprayed over jungles and killed anything living Blue ~ Sprayed over crops to kill anything that was living Napalm ~ An acid that quickly started huge fires in the jungle and burned anything up. Used to clear out the Viet Cong's hiding spaces.
The Credibility Gap Coined by J. William Fulbright meaninf no one can trust the government anymore. Why? Johnson lied about the war and Americans found out through media along with other presidents' lies.
What problem did schools face in the 60s? 1. crowded schools because Baby Boomer children are now in school. 2. Counter Culture & the Vietnam War
In what way were college students active in the Anti-War Movement? Vocal protests on campus - Led to The Free Speech Movement of ‘64 at the the University of CA (groups of students began expressing ideas contrary to society)
How did Betty Friedan affect American society? Her book, the Feminine Mystique influenced second wave feminism and gave a push to the women’s movement.
What was a major component of the feminist movement of the 60s? The birth control pill
What type of culture became popular amongst young adults of the 60s? Sex, drugs, and rock n roll ~ LSD, Woodstock, hippies
What was a big problem suburban parents faced in the 50s? Raising teenage delinquents (signs: leather jacket, rock n roll music,forming own opinions)
According to the media, what was the cause of teenage delinquency? Increased divorce rate, both parents working, increased access to cars, rock n roll music
What were most 50s parents' views on rock n roll music? Downfall of western society, questionable morality/sexuality, awakening of female sexuality, encouraged emotion provocative behavior in men (a big no no in the 50s)
How did rock n roll ease integration? It breached the gap between white, and black teens because teens were listening to the same music at the same venues and they dressed similar.
What were popular television shows in the 50s? Leave it to Beaver, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriett, The Honeymooners, Father Knows Best. All illustrated a "Nuclear family" = perfect, middle class, white families.
Who was in the first presidential debate? Kennedy and Nixon
Created by: EmmaNick96