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apoptosis programmed cell death, result in safe removal of cellular debris
morphology 1. membrane blebbing 2. loss of membrane asymmetry and attachment 3. cell shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation 4. chromatin condensation and chromosomal DNA fragmentation
process 1. apoptosis begins, condensation of chromosome 2. nucleus fragments, Dna is digested (laddering), cytoplasm fragments 3. apoptotic bodies are ingested by phagocytic cells
role in normal physiology development and metamorphosis adaptive immune response
role in disease control of cell growth and proliferation removes damage cell activate killer cells
excessive apo. stroke, neurodegeneration leading to alzheimer and parkinson
defective apo. neoplasie, autoimmune syndromes
Detection with ANNEXIN V late stage; plasma membrane is compromised and nucleic acid dyes are allowed to entrance the cell and bind with DNA- marker for apoptosis
caspases central component for apo. -> cleavage of proteins. detection by immunoblotting tech.using caspase specific antibody or a dye.
intrinsic pathway triggered by non-receptor stimuli internal damage;bcl2 inhibition by bac; making holes in MOMP &cytochrome c leakage. cyto-c-Apaf1 complex-apoptosome;activate caspase 9,cleaves and activates 3&7 leading to digestion os structural protein&dna
bcl2 on the membrane of a healthy cell, inhibits apoptosis
caspases caspase cascade activated by proteolytic cleavage of precursor DED and CARD domain executioner caspases
DED domain death effector domain - regulate cellular signalling pathways
CARD domain activation and recruitment of caspases
executioner caspases 6,3,7
apoptosis inducing factor AIF does not use caspases, located at intermembrane space of mitochondria, one signal ; released from mito. migrate to nuclus and binds to DNA where it triggers its destruction
extrinsic pathway external signal join with death receptor (FASL or TNF). signal transmitted to cytoplasm activating caspase 8 that initiates the cascade of caspases activation. phagocytosis
proteolysis hydrolytic breakdown of proteins into simpler substance
pro- apoptotic enhance apoptosis BAX, BID, BAD, BIM
anti apoptotic inhibits apoptosis Bcl, BCL-XL
in cancer increased expression of BCL2 so it stops the apoptosis of proliferating cells
Created by: purespirit