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Praxis 5543

TermDefinition
What does a standardized test tell us in spec ed? info on functioning, category, inclusion degree
CBM in special ed tells us.. - how well student is doing with instruction in current placement - use for decisions on curriculum and instruction
Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development 1. Sensorimoter - Birth to 24 months 2. Preoperational - Toddler to age 7 3. Concrete Operational - 7 to 12 4. Formal Operational - 13 to adult
8 intelligences 1. Linquistic 2. Logical 3. Spatial 4. Kinesthetic 5. Musical 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Naturalist
3 Primary causes of intellectual disabilities 1. Biological Factors 2. Toxins 3. Brain injuries
4 Principles for effective instruction 1. Planning - assess students needs and abilities 2. Managing - classroom environment 3. Delivering instruction 4. Evaluating instruction
6 Stages for IEP evaluation 1. Screening 2. Pre-referral 3. Written request 4. Formal referral 5. Assessments 6. Formal conference
4 Cross categorical disability categories 1. Nonverbal learning disorder 2. Pervasive Development Disorder PDD 3. ADHD 4. Aspergers Syndrome
3 Categories of physical disabilities 1. Neuromotor impairments: brain injury, Cerebral Palsy, seizures 2. Orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders: muscular dystrophy 3. Health impairments - diabetes, asthma
The inability to complete independent written assignments suggest a problem with _____ organization
IDEA v. 504 - IDEA - Student must have a disability then require special ed services. - Section 504 - Impairment that limits one or more major life activities. A student may not meet IDEA but may have a 504.
Intellectual disability criteria: - Must score at or below 70 to 75 on IQ test
Motor speech disorder that affects the way a student plans to produce speech. Causes - stroke, tumor, head injury Apoxia
Students with learning disabilities have problems with what 3 things? 1. Attention span: Length of time on taks 2. Focus: Blocking out distracting stimuli 3. Selective attention: Discrimination of important stimulus characteristics.
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written Learning disability
Determining SLD involves achievement levels in 4 areas: - oral expression - listening comprehension - written expression - basic reading skills
How long does the school have from request for evaluation until determine 60 days
evaluation of formal assessments and review of observations by parents/teachers Screening
if preferral interventions do not work, the next step is a _____ multifactored evaluation
4 components of ABC objective 1 state learner (who?) 2 id antecedent (preceding activity condition or stimuli) 3 id target behavior (what student will be doing when change is achieved) 4 id criteria for acceptable performance
3 co-conditions of LD - ADD - ADHD - gifted
links negative behavior to positive intervention BIP
2 Reasons a BIP is needed 1. if at initial IEP meeting or review team is aware of a behavior that impeds learning 2. student is suspended more than 10 days or change in placement
cooperative discipline logical consequences based on 4 motivations of behavior
intellectual disabilities test on 3 areas: - academic achievement - intellectual - adaptive
6 components of IDEA - FAPE - LRE - IEP - parental participation - due process - nondiscriminatory evaluation
4 examples of positive behavior support -teaching expectations -rules and routines -data based to predict negative behavior -reinforcements
5 early indicators of LD - delay in fine and gross motor - auditory processing - visual processing - attention and hyperactivity - delay in language and communication
7 IEP requirements of IDEA - PLEP - annual goals - LRE statement - how progress will be measured & reports go out - special ed services and modifications - participation/accomodations in state assessments - date of services
when teacher gradually fading out support as students gain mastery contingent teaching
when teacher's lessons that are naturally engaging with naturally occurring consequences naturalistic teaching
4 examples of modifications - limited number of math problems - only completing half - exemption from a task - provide diff task with same concept
rules that govern how words are made into possessives and plurals Morphology
rules of language and communication Pragmatics
using and understanding words and sentences semantics
2 compenents of reading - word recognition - reading comprehension
how morphemes and words are combined to make grammatical sentences syntax
study of phonemes and how they are combined into words phonology
5 phonological awareness strategies - rhyming - comparing/contrasting sounds -substitute sounds -blending -identify initial, medial and ending sounds
recognizing and interpreting what we see visual perception
related services vs supplementary aids and services - related services - services student needs other than special ed (OT, SLP, transportation) necessary for student to benefit from special ed - supplementary aids and services (supports - equipment, aids, tutors, assistive tech)
humanistic approach that is based on a relationship with the student and understanding their, emotions as motives for how they react psychoeducational approach
The inability to identify, organize and interpret sensory data received by the individual through the eye visual spatial disabilties
The inability to recognize a difference between phoneme sounds; also the difficulty in identifying words that are the same and words that are different when the difference is a single phoneme element (big - pig). auditory processing difficulties
disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language; may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. specific learning disabilities
An initiative from the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services sponsored by Madeline Will in 1986 that t advocated the integration of general and special education into one educational system for all students. regular education initiative
This term refers to a concomitant (combination) of impairments, which result in such severe educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs designed only for one of the impairments. multiple disabilities
Children with speech disorders have problems with what 4 things? - articulation - voice - fluency - any combination of these
difficulty using words singularly or in sentences indicates a problem with ____ semantics
weakening and wasting away of muscles muscular dystrophy
5 characteristics of Autism - impairs social interaction (eye contact, touch, relationships) - stereotypical behavior (flapping) - delay in development - resistant to change in routine - unusual response to sensory material
qualitative impairment in social interaction/lack of emotional reciprocity with an abnormal preoccupation to one area of interest or routines that has no language impairment but may be monotone Asperger syndrome
2 causes of emotional/behavioral disorder - biological - environmental
disorder where child cannot correctly produce various sounds and sound combos of speech, such as substitutions, omissions, additions, and distortions speech disorder
affects the way students plan to produce speech that are acquired from stroke/head injury and may consists of a difficulty to move muscles to make sounds apoxia
loss of ability to speak aphasia
continuing practice after students have gained mastery overlearning
having a student feel safe and loved in the classroom environment gentle teaching
10 strategies for reading comprehension -read in small chunks -ask questions - use predictions - use context clues -connect story to real life -involve senses make it multisensory - complete a project - watch a movie -repeat reading -read lower level text that is still appropriate
8 types of intelligence - linguistic - logical - spatial - kinesthetic - musical - interpersonal - intrapersonal - naturalist
5 types of developmental delay 1. cognitive development 2. physical development, incl vision and hearing 3. communication development 4. social/emotional 5. adaptive
difficulty in perceiving and understanding others social cognition
2 characteristics of student with specific learning disability 1. average to above average intelligence 2. learning needs in listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, math
disorder that affects mostly males, linked to intellectual disability long narrow face, large ears, prominent forehead Fragile X Syndrome
12 Categories in IDEA 1. hearing 2. visual 3. orthopedic 5. autism 6. learning disabilities 7. speech language 8. emotional 9. multiple 10. OHI 11. deaf/blindness 12. brain injury
Students with learning disabilities have what 3 main things? 1. poor strategies for memorizing information 2. have insufficient metacognitive skills for recalling information 3. limited semantic memory capabilities
Students with learning disabilities have difficulty with what 3 main things? 1. attention: length of time on task 2. focus: blocking out distracting stimuli 3. selective attention: discrimination of important characteristics
special education teacher's 4 role involved with IEPs - to manage the IEP team - implement the IEP - provide accommodations to general education - support the student and other teachers.
7 duties of special education teacher - conduct assessments - plan for instructions - implement instruction & accommodations - monitor student progress - collaborate with team members - schedule and run IEP meetings - conduct transition assessments
7 duties of special education teacher - Train staff/students in advocacy - communicate w/parents - facilitate program activities - supervise paraprofessionals - manage behavior assessments/plans - participate in staff developments/workshops - keep current on research
services that focus on the child and the family and includes plans that are comprehensive and address multiple life domains across home, school, and the community Wrap around services
a disability with siginificantly subaverage general functioning, existing with decifits in adaptive behavior and manifested in developmental period Intellectual disability
impairment caused by congenital abnormality, disease, other causes (cerebral palsy, amputations, fractures, burns) Orthopedic impairment
10 main types of OHI listed in IDEA - asthma - ADHD - ADD - diabetes - eplipesy - heart conditions - lead poisoning - leukemia - sickle cell anemia - tourettes
disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language that manifests in disability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, math not result of any other condition incl aphasia, brain injury learning disability
a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment or voice impairment speech/language impairment
acquired injury to the brain caused by external force, resulting in total/partial disability or psychosocial impairment Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
students with these 3 types of brain injuries do not qualify for TBI under IDEA - Congenital - degenerative - birth trauma
plan that moves students to adult life that is based on individual needs and desires, such as daily living and functioning skills Individual transition plan (ITP)
6 Effective instructional techniques 1. anticipatory set (gain interest) 2. explain purpose of lesson 3. model 4. check for understanding 5. guided practice 6. independent practice
Children with Intellectual disabilities generally have issues with what 4 things? - memory - attention - generalization - motivation
BIP includes 3 main parts: - operational definition of behavior - result of FBA - interventions to be used
cooperative discipline is based on 4 motivations of behavior: - power - revenge, - attention - fear of failure
goal of PBS is teaching ____ not ____ - teaching positive behavior - not punishment
approach concerned with the mind, perception of reality and feelings, student must find a new way to react to the environment psychoeducational approach
with the info from multifactored evaluations, ____ is determined eligibility
2 ways of getting a diagnosis of emotional/behavioral disorder - frequency of chronic problem - intensity of chronic problem
disorder that occurs when a child cannot understand what is being said to them receptive language disorder
universal standard intelligence test Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
test that measures child's independent behavior Woodcock-Johnston Scales of Independent Behavior
condition where is an absence of oxygen supply to an organ's tissues anoxia
condition where there is a decrease of oxygen to the tissue hypoxia
active student response responses that are measurable and observable
process where experiences and activities are selected for each student to gain skills they will need functional curriculum
helping disabled people lead normal lives to the best of their ability normalization
teaching where one teacher works with individuals/small groups and the other teacher works with a larger group alternative teaching
teaching where 2 teachers share classroom duties complementary teaching
teaching where a special education teacher is paired with a general education teacher cooperative teaching
teaching strategy that allows teachers to consider needs of students differentiated instruction
teaching strategy believed to reduce factors that disrupt productive learning direct instruction
teaching where both teachers divide class into 2 groups and teach the same topics at the same time parallel teaching
teaching where 2 teachers instruct 2 equally divided groups and teach different topics at the same time station teaching
test used to measure the levels of functioning of children and their attention/planning. cognitive assessments (CAS)
test given as direct evaluations/assessments of academic skills and abilities Curriculum Assessments (CBA)
evaluation/assessment of what student has learned summative assessment
evaluation/assessment that focuses on what the student need to learn formative assessment
evaluation used to figure out what a child is behaving in a particular manner Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)
national legislation that mandates all school tests on a yearly basis to chow continued improvement of children in order to retain federal financial funding No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
meeting held within 15 days of filing a due process complaint resolution meeting
act that provides protection for people with disabilities Rehabilitation act
mandatory age for student participation in transition services 16 years old
condition that causes girls to lose fine/gross motor skills, speech, language, and eyesight apraxia
heart condition that causes irregular heartbeats that can cause the heat to stop beating dysrthymia
Children with ASD are likely to also have what 3 other conditions? - ADHD - Epilepsy - Intellectual Disabilities
positive peer review behavioral strategy where students provide praise to their peers tooting
5 elements of cooperative learning approach - face to face interactions - supportive gestures - positive interdependence - individual/group accountability - group processing
4 stages involved in observable learning - attention - retention - initiation - motivation
a ___ intellectual disability includes characteristics such as heavy mental and sensory motor deficiencies with a minimum amount of basic communication skills profound intellectual disability
a profound intellectual disability has an IQ below ___ and ____ below 20 to 25
a mild intellectual disability has an IQ between ___ and ____ 50/55 to 70
a moderate intellectual disability has an IQ between ___ and ____ 35/40 to 50/55
a severe intellectual disability has an IQ between ___ and ____ 20/25 to 35/40
measures a person's social skills Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)
____ has been found most effective in increasing a desired behavior Positive reinforcement
a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities requires evaluation results that give deficits in both ___ and ___ skills intellectual and adaptive skills
access to academic rigor are realistic, but high expectations enable developmental disability (DD) students ____ higher achievements
strict and unwavering adherence to rules moral realism
The most common indicator that a student has a learning disability is the difference between measures of ___ and ___ potential and achievement
Teachers can create supportive learning environments by building a ____ for students strong classroom community
Cognitive functioning is a student's ____ and adaptive functioning is a student's ____ - intelligence - independent living skills
student's educational/behavioral difficulties are documented and explained during the ____ process. pre-referral
For reauthorization, the IEP must describe _____ that are designed to _____ goals designed to meet child's educational needs
Created by: ashley029